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Author Topic: Goat Breeds  (Read 15282 times)
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orvenjohn
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« Reply #45 on: October 14, 2008, 02:02:38 AM »

Hello Doc Nemo,

Do you have any estimates for a possible Dairy/Meat Goat Farm initial investment capital? Say 1 hectare of land? Is 1 million peso initial startup capital excluding farm land is enough? I need to buy those manuals and dvd/cds relating to goat farming, where can we find this one?

Thanks, hope i can have an idea to start my own business in the future.

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« Reply #46 on: October 14, 2008, 10:34:54 AM »

what breed would be the best in milk production and is available here in the philippines?
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nemo
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« Reply #47 on: October 14, 2008, 09:33:17 PM »

Saanen is the best milker and it is also available in the Philippines.
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mikey
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« Reply #48 on: December 05, 2008, 12:53:21 PM »

There have been some dairy goat farms in the USA ,England and Canada that have been breeding a crossbreed called SNUBIAN since 2003 and earlier.Very good results with this breed for a commercial dairy setting.They use a purebred Saanen buck bred to a purebred Anglo doe,the offspring results in a crossbreed called a (snubian).The does from this cross have high production levels like the Saanen and  higher butter fat levels like the Anglo.The does from this cross are bred back to a purebred Saanen making a high percentage (saanen goat).

This is for a commercial dairy operation,all goats end up as meat goats at some point in time.

Let's look at average milk yield and butterfat percentage (how creamy the milk is) for the six breeds of dairy goats popular in the U.S.

BREED
 305 day yield (lb)
 305 day yield (kg)
 fat percentage
 
French Alpine
 1979
 900
 3.5
 
La Mancha
 1771
 850
 3.9
 
Anglo-Nubian
 1618
 735
 4.6
 
Oberhasli
 1663
 756
 3.7
 
Saanen
 1998
 908
 3.5
 
Toggenburg
 1710
 777
 3.3
 


Notice that the total milk yield in this table for a goat milking for 305 days in a row is given in both pounds (lb) and kilograms (kg). In the metric system of measuring, milk is weighed in kilograms not pounds (remember 1 kg of milk = 2.2 lbs of milk). If you are used to thinking of milk in quarts, a quart of milk weighs a about 2.15 lbs or a tiny bit less than 1 kg), so you can use the kg column to figure out roughly how many quarts are produced. The Alpine and Saanen breeds are very comparable for milk yield and fat percentage. The Toggenburg breed average for milk and butterfat percentage is a little lower. The Oberhasli breed average is also lower for milk yield. These breeds were all developed especially for milk production in a very mountainous region of Europe called the Alps. La Manchas also tend to give less milk than Alpines and Saanens. They are a slightly smaller breed of goat that was developed in the U.S. from crossing various types of goats that made their way here from all over Europe. Anglo-Nubians are generally referred to as plain Nubians. They were developed during British colonial times from crosses of British, Middle Eastern, and Indian breeds of goats. Nubians are known for their creamy, high butterfat milk and their tolerance to heat. Because their milk is more concentrated, they tend to give less of it. However, you can have individual Saanens that give less than a individual Nubian and vice versus. Within any breed there is a wide range of milking ability represented.

Each of these six breeds of dairy goats tends to look very different from the others. They each have different breed characteristics or traits that help tell them apart. The French Alpine, Oberhasli, Saanen , and Toggenburg breeds all have straight or slightly dished faces and erect ears. In contrast, the Nubian has long, dangling ears and a "roman" or convex nose. The "La Mancha" has a very noticeable trait. It has such tiny ear flaps that at first glance it may look like it has no ears. Believe me, it has ears! It hears just as well as the other breeds do.

Nubians and La Manchas come in a wide variety of colors and color patterns. However, the Alpine breeds come in distinct colors and color patterns. Saanens are supposed to be white (or light cream) all over. Toggenburgs range in a brown color from light fawn to dark chocolate and have distinct white markings on ears, face stripes, lower legs and edging their tails. Oberhaslis are a light to dark reddish brown with black trim (facial stripes, stripe along their spine from ears to tail, belly, udder and lower legs). This color is similar to a bay horse. French Alpines come in a wide arrange of colors and distinct patterns which are referred to by French names. For example, the bay color of the Oberhasli is referred to as "Chamoisee". French Alpines are not supposed to be Saanen or Toggenburg colored. There are hidden or recessive color genes in each breed so sometimes (very, very rarely) the breeds do not breed true for color. The Breed Standard available from the American Dairy Goat Association gives the details of what is the correct appearance for each breed. These specifics are important if you want to show or register your goat. They do not affect how much milk she will produce.

« Last Edit: December 07, 2008, 04:34:31 AM by mikey » Logged
tata
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« Reply #49 on: February 28, 2009, 05:04:21 AM »

Paano ko po malalaman na 100% boer/ anglo-nubian?
Salamat po…
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« Reply #50 on: March 16, 2009, 04:17:17 AM »

How American La Manchas
Came to Be

By Mrs. Eula Fay Frey
Reprinted From Dairy Goat Journal
January, 1960 


This is the story of my first interest in the American La Mancha dairy goats.
Mrs. Eula Fay Frey pictured with some of her does, pictured left to right: Rhonda (8 years old), Darlene (4 years old), and Sharon (1-1/2 years). Back of photo reads: "Sharon (born late 1952) is daughter of Darlene. Darlene (born 5-16-50) is daughter of Rhonda. Rhonda is sired by Scamp. Darlene is sired by Ernie. Sharon is sired by Scoundrel." Scoundrel was Mrs. Frey's primary herd sire for the early 1960s. Photo taken in 1964.
 

I am a great lover of most all animals, especially goats. In 1937 or prior to that time, I subscribed to Dairy Goat Journal and read everything I could find in it regarding the benefits derived from the use of goat milk. My husband, the late Jene S. Frey, was seriously ill from overwork and stomach ulcers and I was trying to get him interested in using goat milk.

In September 1937 we bought Poplar Goat Dairy in Bell, California. Mr. Frey was completely cured of ulcers by going on a strict diet of natural goat milk and tomato juice. He then enjoyed excellent health until he was the victim of a traffic accident in November, 1942.

We bought 130 goats, two of which had very small ears. The small-eared ones were a doe and her son, an early 1937 kid named Tommy. The doe was small and of a roan color. Tommy was a rich golden brown.

We had never seen goats with such small ears and at the time were not very favorably impressed by them. We didn't know what breed name to call them, so just called them "short ears." It was several years later that we learned that the short-eared goats were descendants of a Spanish breed known as La Mancha. LaManchas were brought into the United States from Mexico, the stock first having been imported from Spain to that country.

I wasn't interested in the short ears, but I did take a great interest in two Nubian-French Alpine first fresheners. They were beautiful and I named them Rose and Toy. Rose was tricolored and Toy was black and tan, and quite small.

We agreed to use Tommy (the short-eared buck) on the does that we weren't going to save kids from. Rose was the last doe bred to Tommy. By the time Rose freshened on May 23, 1938, Tommy, his offspring, and also his mother had been destroyed or sold. I milked Tommy's mother just once and was amazed at the amount of milk produced by so small an animal.
Peggy and her buck kid, Rascal.
 

The result of the breeding of Rose to Tommy was a buck that looked like his mother, and one of the most beautiful short-eared doe kids I have ever seen. She was golden brown and curly and had very large eyes. Jene and I both said in the same breath, "Let's keep her." I named her Peggy. She was my pride and joy and I took her most every place that I went while she was a kid. She was very intelligent and I taught her several tricks. Peggy developed into a short-haired, sleek doe. So because of Peggy my interest in the short-eared goats, the La Manchas, developed.

Peggy was bred to Jim, a cross between a Nubian and French Alpine. She produced a short-eared buck, a short-eared doe, and a doe that looked like Jim. We destroyed the buck and kept both doe kids, Pauline the short-eared one, and Paulette the Nubian-French Alpine. Pauline was so badly injured by some other goats when she was near two months old that we had to destroy her.

Paulette was bred to Christopher, a beautiful bright red Nubian-Murciana buck. The result was Redette, a bright red doe, that later became the mother of Gilda, a La Mancha. Gilda's sire was Scamp, a grandson of Peggy. Gilda was one of the most beautiful La Manchas that I have ever owned. She died young from the overproduction of kids and milk.

When Peggy freshened the second time, she had three bucks sired by Jim. We kept one of them and named him Rascal. He and a purebred Toggenburg doe were later the parents of Scamp mentioned above. Peggy was a small doe. After her second freshening I kept an unofficial record of her milk production over quite a period of time. She produced 10 to 12 lbs. of milk per day with 14 lbs. on her high day.

When Peggy freshened the third time she gave birth to three red La Mancha bucks sired by Christopher. I made a great mistake in not keeping at least one of them. It was about 1940 that I purchased a young La Mancha doe from N. S. Goodridge. We called her Nesta and I have quite a few of her descendants in my herd today. Nesta was a wonderful little doe both in looks and milk production
Rose and Toy
The following is typed on the back of the photograph: "The doe on the right is Peggy's mother. She was a Nubian-Alpine. We called her Rose. The other doe is Rose's pal Toy. Toy was the mother of Wretha. Wretha was sired by Peggy's son, Rascal. Rose lived to be 16 years old, then we put her to sleep. Toy also was Nubian-Alpine."
 

Toy was bred to Rascal and produced Wretha, a La Mancha, that later produced Cookie, whose sire was a purebred Nubian. Cookie was bred to a purebred French Alpine and produced Wafer. Wafer was my first cou blane La Mancha. She was bred to Scamp and Polly and Jolly were their daughters. I have quite a number of descendants of Polly and Jolly. We lost Polly before La Manchas were a recognized breed. Fay's Jolly L-2 is one of the American La Mancha foundation herd. After La Manchas were recognized as a breed, they were called American La Manchas.

A great deal of credit is due Thomas Draper for promoting the registration of American La Manchas.

M. A. Maxwell and Ted Johnston helped pick the foundation herd from my La Manchas.1

The AMGRA officials were responsible for setting up the American LaMancha Herd Book.

Polly was bred to Max, an unregistered Saanen that was the son of Hercules of Wasatch and Delta Cream Puff. Fay's Pollyette L-63, and her three brothers were the result of this breeding. Fay's Pollyette is now owned by Mr. and Mrs. R. W. Soens.

After my La Mancha herd increased to several does and two to three bucks, I would breed La Mancha does to other breed bucks and the very best does of the other breeds and cross breeds were bred to the La Mancha bucks. Christopher played a great part in distributing Murciana blood throughout the La Manchas.

Crocus was another daughter of Wretha, and granddaughter of Toy. She and her descendants are rich in Murciana blood. Murcianas produce a fine-flavored milk, rich in butterfat.2

Mr. and Mrs. Harry Gordon were the owners of the registered Murciana whose blood runs through my herd of American La Manchas.3
Mrs. Eula Fay Frey and a team of American La Mancha wethers in an Oregon Centennial parade at Roseburg, Oregon, June 20, 1959.
 

A daughter of Rascal, who was also the granddaughter of Christopher, was bred to a purebred Swill alpine and produced a good line of American La Manchas, one of which was Mickey. Mickey was the mother of Fay's Mickey, L-64. Fay's Mickey, bred to Fay's Ernie L-1, produced Fay's Erna, L-76, and Fay's Myrna L-77. Fay's Myrna is now owned by Amos Nixon.

Scamp and a grade Saanen were the parents of another good strain of American La Manchas.

I have mentioned a few of the families that have descended from Peggy, but there are also quite a few other strains of American La Manchas that have branched off also.

In 1954 I kept quite a number of American La Mancha buck kids and after 1957 discontinued the use of other breeds and bred American La Manchas to American La Manchas. The first American La Manchas were registered in January, 1958.

In 1954, I purchased 36 head of American La Manchas from the late Ira D. Peel. He had obtained them at a sale. I culled this herd to just a few and kept only one of the seven bucks. There were some real good animals in this group.

I made it a point to always select the best purebreds and grades to breed into my American La Mancha herd. Many herd names are represented, some of which are mentioned here. Oakwood, Del-Norte, Chikaming, Wasatch, Delta, Rio Linda, Silver Pine, MacAlpine, Silvergate, Hurricane Acres, Decor'OChevonshire, and I am sure quite a few others not mentioned here.

To the breeders of these fine animals I owe a great deal. To them I am very grateful.
Fay’s Brit
 

The goal that I aimed at in breeding American La Manchas was a breed that was able to produce 3-1/2 to six quarts of fine-flavored milk with 3.5% or more butterfat over a period of one to four years between freshenings. They should have the w-way wedge body, strong legs well-placed, udders well-attached, both front and back, good barrel, short sleek hair, any color or combination of colors, horned or hornless, and head the size of Toggenburgs.

A dream that American La Manchas would some day become a recognized and registered breed has come true.

Mr. and Mrs. R. W. Soens are the first to own registered La Manchas east of the Rocky Mountains, and are also the first to have them on test.

Epilogue
At the annual banquet of the American Milk Goat Record Association in Springfield, Illinois, October 15, 1960, the Mary L. Farley Award was given to Mrs. Eula Fay Frey in recognition of her years of work in developing the La Mancha breed.

Mrs. Frey died in 1968.


1 "Three herd names dominated the list of approximately 235 goats which were destined to become BASIC La Manchas. The Fay candidates were inspected and registered in 1958 with Midolane and Blue Diamond soon added to their prefixes to the herdbooks. Other breeders included R. W. Soens (Bomar), Then ANGRA Secretary, the late Hazel Pike (Lucky Leaf), and the late Ed Coulter (Coulter R). The term BASIC refers to those short-eared goats which were inspected for type, and presumably quality, by a committee of experienced AMGRA members. Several of the first 225, or so, are progeny of other BASICs. Were they also inspected? For the purpose of this article, all numbers up to and including number 225 are considered BASIC." "The Short Ear Phenomenon," Barbara Backus, Dairy Goat Journal, Jan. 1981

2 "The Murciana is a Spanish breed of dairy goat having been developed in the province of Murcia. This area is in the southeast of Spain along the Mediterranean. The ancient kingdom of Murcia was first settled by the Romans and reconquered by the Moors in the 13th Century. The Murciana goat is not earless. It carries its short ears almost horizontally, but the shape of its ear is like that of the Swiss breeds. This breed may have actually originated in Africa as some suspect." "As I see the American La Mancha," S. Tachera, Dairy Goat Journal, Jan. 1975

3 The Murciana goat was clearly in the United States by 1920, as display advertisements in The Goat World of the period attest. In these ads, this breed was referred to as the "Royal Murciana," although Dr. C. P. DeLangle, in his article "The Murcien Goat" printed in the August 1921 issue of The Goat World says, "The only Royalty attached to it, is in the fancy of its admirers, but, let it be said, that the true Murcien goat is one, if not, the handsomest goat known." He also wrote of the Murcien: "It is a made-up breed like most all important goats."

By 1936 the Murcianas must have been a bit scarce. Printed in the Murciana breed column of the January 1936 issue of the Dairy Goat Journal, was an offer to help reestablish the breed. The column indicated that "...at present, it is doubtful if there is a pure-bred buck of this breed in America. As far as is known Mrs. Katherine Kadel has the only purebred does." It goes on to say that while Mrs. Kadel had tried to arrange for further importations from Spain, regulations made this prohibitive. "However, the Journal has scouted around and believes it has found a reliable source of supply in Mexico, from a herd of Murcianas (it also contains Granadas should anyone be interested), imported several years ago from Apain. Prices range from $30 to $100 each."
 
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« Reply #51 on: December 23, 2010, 11:32:36 AM »

Breed History of the
Nigerian Dwarf Dairy Goat
Used by permission from www.andda.org 

Like many breeds of domesticated livestock, the complete history of the Nigerian Dwarf is incomplete. Through the years and stages of development, records were not always kept, or if they were, they are sketchy at best. Developing the history of the breed is much like putting a jigsaw puzzle together that is missing many of its pieces. To reach the present day Nigerian Dwarf, one has to use a combination of documented facts, speculation, deductive reasoning and a little imagination.

What is known is that throughout tropical Western Africa, there is a type of goat referred to as the West African Dwarf (WAD). These goats are used as a food source, both meat and milk, for the local population. Due to economic hardships, keeping "pets" has never been an option. It appears that little thought was used in breeding and it was truly a survival of the fittest phenomenon taking place. In published writings about Albert Schweitzer and his work at his hospital in Lambrene in the country now known as Gabone, the local goat is often referred to, and is credited with supplying the milk for the hospital. The imported breeds typically known as dairy breeds weren't able to withstand the Tse-Tse fly, and therefore were not productive. But throughout the years, the WAD goats continued to survive and thrive. Books on Dr. Schweitzer show pictures of goats similar in type to the Nigerian Dwarves currently found in the United States.

Exactly how the WAD goats came to American soil is one of the missing pieces in the puzzle. One theory is that as the big cats were shipped to zoos, goats were loaded onto the vessels as a food source for the cats while in transit. The goats that weren't consumed went on to live and reproduce in those same zoos. As early as 1918, Joseph Crepin reported in the second edition of la Chévre that WAD goats had been imported to the United States. Additionally, there were a number of documented importations from the 1930s to the 1960s
The first miniature goats to appear in this country were part of zoo exhibits and occasionally research institutions. As the population began to grow, it became necessary to reduce the number of animals, and individuals had their first opportunity to own these unique goats. Originally, all small goats of WAD origin were indiscriminately referred to as pygmies. In the beginning, pygmy was used more to describe a size of goat rather than a specific breed, much like Swiss is often used to refer to the various erect eared breeds hailing from Europe.

As time went on, breeders began to notice differences in type within what had become the Pygmy breed. It became apparent that there were two distinct types: the shorter legged, heavier bodied, round bone animals more typical of what is known today as a Pygmy, and the more refined, angular animal that has become today's Nigerian Dwarf. As breeders began to communicate, they discovered there were others in the United States and Canada who had similar observances. Mrs. Bonnie Abrahamson of North Ogden, Utah, while working in a zoo in California, was one of the first to notice the distinctive difference.

Mrs. Abrahamson brought several black and white animals that she referred to as Nigerian Dwarves to an American Goat Society (AGS) Pygmy certification committee. Despite their more refined type and dairy appearance, these animals were accepted into the AGS Pygmy herdbook. At about the same time, Mr. Heabert Woods of Alexandria, Indiana, had animals similar in type to Mrs. Abrahamson's, but they were brown in color and refused entry into the National Pygmy Goat Associations herdbooks because of their color.

These two breeders petitioned the International Dairy Goat Registry (IDGR) to open a herdbook for Nigerian Dwarves. IDGR opened a separate herdbook for the breed, complete with a standard emphasizing dairy characteristics. On July 24, 1981, Mr. Robert Johnson's Bullfrog Alleys Johnny Jump-Up #2, a buck bred by Mrs. Abrahamson, became the first Nigerian Dwarf registered by any registry. By January 1987, there were 384 animals registered in the herdbooks of IDGR as Nigerian Dwarves, with 93 of those registered the previous year alone. In part, largely due to the fact that IDGR does not sanction shows, the popularity of the registry has waned over the years.

The early Nigerian Dwarves were seen most often in three distinct color lines, all of similar type, even though many of the early breeders attempted to keep each color line separate from the others. A majority of these early animals were brown, black or gold, all with or without random white markings. Possibly because of the limited number of representatives of the breed, breeders did begin to mix the color lines fairly early on, although references to specific color lines could still be found as late as 1988.

In 1984, AGS opened a herdbook for Nigerian Dwarves, and by September of the following year, 82 animals (representing breeders from eight states and Canada) had been registered. The first AGS registered Nigerian Dwarf distinction goes to Wrights Pansy, AGS # D-1f, owned by Francis Wright of Indiana. Mr. Woods was instrumental in getting a separate herdbook for the breed with AGS, and was made chairman of the Nigerian Dwarf committee. Mr. Wright and Pat Freeman of Dutton, Ontario, completed the original Nigerian Dwarf committee for AGS.

To form the foundation of the breed, applications were submitted to the committee along with a clear photograph of the animal and a measurement of the animal at the withers. If the committee unanimously agreed that the animal—that had to be at least one year of age—met the breed standard, the animal was then eligible to be registered as a purebred Nigerian Dwarf. Animals that were accepted for registration using this process are often referred to as a "committee animal." Some of the animals submitted, such as Mrs. Abrahamson's, were previously registered as Pygmies. It also would include animals with unknown backgrounds that showed true Nigerian Dwarf characteristics, and as time went on, animals that were of registered ancestry but which did not have the paperwork kept up. Many times, it was easier to submit the animal for certification than to retrace paperwork for several generations.

The original closing date for the herdbook was set at December 31, 1987. A change in the standard that year, however, would allow animals that previously were ineligible and the date was extended to December 31, 1990. In 1990, with fewer than 400 Nigerian Dwarves registered, the AGS Board voted to extend the deadline until December 31, 1992, to allow for a sufficient genetic base of foundation stock. The certification process did end in 1992, and all animals registered through this point, whether by ancestry or committee approval, carry an "F" suffix to their registration number to indicate that they are considered a foundation animal. Unfortunately, accurate records were not kept as to exactly how many animals were admitted via certification, but by the end of 1992, approximately 2,000 Nigerian Dwarves had been registered with the American Goat Society.

There was still some concern that the breed needed a broader genetic base, and a progeny program was put into place until December 31, 1997. An unregistered animal would still be considered for registration if, when bred to several different AGS registered Nigerian Dwarves (three for does, four for bucks), the animal and all surviving offspring met breed standard and received unanimous approval of the Nigerian Dwarf committee. Again, accurate records were not kept, but one committee member recalls very few of these coming through committee. In keeping with AGS philosophy of closed, purebred herdbooks, since January 1, 1998, the only way to be registered as a purebred Nigerian Dwarf is to be the offspring of two registered purebred Nigerian Dwarves. While there have undoubtedly been animals of varied background admitted to the herdbook, essentially since 1992 the herdbook has been closed. Using the wide genetic base created through the open herdbook, breeders are now molding the breed into a superior milk-producing animal of unmistakable dairy goat type that also happens to be small. While the Nigerian Dwarf and the Pygmy share common ancestry, they have clearly become two, distinct breeds through the efforts of breeders of both of the breeds.

The popularity of the breed has continued to grow, in part because of AGS sanctioned shows being held across the country. The first show that offered a separate sanction for the breed was the 1985 AGS National Show held in Graham, Texas. Only two exhibitors of Nigerian Dwarves were present (Shaula Parker and Kathleen Claps), and the breed wasn't official, but there has been no looking back since.


Pine Cone Valley Black Satin, a doe that is listed as an original import, owned by Ms. Claps, had the distinction of being crowned the first AGS National Champion Nigerian Dwarf. While the popularity of shows skyrocketed after this, another AGS National Show was not held until 1996.Through the hard work of Nigerian Dwarf breeders, an AGS sanctioned National Show, with classes for the Nigerian Dwarf, has been held every year since. Interestingly, the four does to win the national after Black Satin all trace their bloodlines back to her many times.

From the first show in 1985 with a few animals, it is now not uncommon for a show of Nigerian Dwarves to approach 200 animals. AGS sanctioned shows are being held in almost every part of the country, and Nigerian Dwarf breeders are traveling thousands of miles a year to promote the breed and their herds.

In 2002, the Nigerian Dwarf was also accepted into the American Dairy Goat Association herdbook. The first ADGA National with a Nigerian show was held in Louisville, Kentucky in 2010. Nigerian breeders traveled from far and wide to participate in this historic event, bringing along 81 junior does and 109 senior does, for a total of 190 exhibits. It was a grand showing with GCH and RGCH senior doe honors going to Rosasharn P Haiku and AGS Rosasharn's Buckwheat Honey, respectively. Anne Petersen, Massachusetts, owned both does.

Looking back at the breeders that have made this all happen, the most influential would be Mrs. Abrahamson. It was her vision that the breed be classified separately from what was known as the Pygmy. Due to her failing health, Mrs. Abrahamson was force to sell her herd in 1981, and Robert Johnson, owner of IDGR, purchased her herd. Her Bullfrog Alley herd can be found in many of today's Nigerian Dwarves, either directly, or more commonly through Mr. Johnson's Pine Cone Valley herd.

Of course, Mr. Wood, working primarily with the brown line, was quite influential, and Highland Woods animals are evident in many pedigrees. Mr. Wood worked closely with Mr. Wright of Wrights Acres, and those animals appear in many pedigrees as well. Ms. Freeman's Braco herd, primarily through the popularity of one buck, can be found in many pedigrees. Of these early breeders, unfortunately many are no longer alive or no longer active. Ms. Freeman still breeds goats, but her herd is known more for its Pygmies.

Moving a bit forward, one can find three other prominent herds that have heavily influenced the Nigerian Dwarf breed. Mrs. Sandra Mason, now of Medina, Ohio, but previously from Texas and then Washington, owns the Brush Creek herd. Much of her original herd traced to the San Antonio Zoo that reportedly had direct imports. Mrs. Mason has been breeding Nigerian Dwarves since 1982, was an AGS Nigerian Dwarf committee chairperson and an ANDDA Director.

Also beginning in 1982, Mrs. Shaula Parker of Willow Park, Texas, began breeding under the herd name of Willows or Willow Creek. Mrs. Parker's animals can be found in pedigrees throughout the country. Additionally, Mrs. Parker was the breeder of the 1996 National Best of Breed doe. Mrs. Parker and Mrs. Mason formed a very close relationship, and animals from each herd could be found in the other. Also, these two ladies co-edited the first breed publication, Footnotes*.

The last herd to be mentioned is that of Ms. Kathleen Claps, of Dripping Springs, Texas. Her Goodwood animals have stamped a very distinctive type across the breed. The achievement of the Goodwood animals is nothing less than remarkable. The first Master Champions bear the Goodwood name, the 1997 National Best of Breed doe was a Goodwood doe, and the first animals on test were owned by Goodwood. Ms. Claps was also the founder of one of the original breed organizations for the breed, and following the decision to stop publishing Footnotes*, she began the breed magazine, Ruminations, and was its editor for many years. These three ladies have done more than most will ever know, in helping the formation of the breed to what it has become today.
 
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« Reply #52 on: March 08, 2012, 12:22:57 PM »

Alpine Breed Standard

American Dairy Goat Association

The Alpine Dairy Goat is also referred to as the French Alpine and registration papers for this dairy goat use both designations and they are synonymous. The Alpine dairy goat is a medium to large size animal, alertly graceful, and the only breed with upright ears that offers all colors and combinations of colors giving them distinction and individuality. They are hardy, adaptable animals that thrive in any climate while maintaining good health and excellent production. The hair is medium to short. Mature does are expected to be no less than 30 inches at the withers and weigh no less than 135lbs. Mature bucks are expected to be no less than 32 inches at the withers and weigh no less than 170lbs. The face is straight. A Roman nose, Toggenburg color and markings, or all-white is discriminated against. Alpine colors are described by using the following terms:

 COU BLANC (coo blanc) - literally "white neck" white front quarters and black hindquarters with black or gray markings on the head.

 

COU CLAIR (coo clair) - literally "clear neck" front quarters are tan, saffron, off-white, or shading to gray with black hindquarters.

 

COU NOIR (coo nwah) - literally "black neck" black front quarters and white hindquarters.




SUNDGAU (sundgow) - black with white markings such as underbody, facial stripes, etc.




PIED - spotted or mottled.

CHAMOISEE (shamwahzay) - brown or bay characteristic markings are black face, dorsal stripe, feet and legs, and sometimes a martingale running over the withers and down to the chest. Spelling for male is chamoise.

 

TWO-TONE CHAMOISEE - light front quarters with brown or gray hindquarters. This is not a cou blanc or cou clair as these terms are reserved for animals with black hindquarters.



BROKEN- Any variation in the above patterns broken with white should be described as a broken pattern such as a broken cou blanc.

 

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The French vs. The American Alpine

Amongst new Alpine enthusiasts, the French and American designation is often a confusing one. The French or Purebred Alpine is one who traces back to only the original animals imported from France. American Alpines those animals that have been crossed with other breeds and then bred back up using registered American or French Alpine bucks. A French Alpine (aka Purebred Alpine) can only be achieved by breeding two French Alpines together. The terms French and Purebred are synonymous and can be used interchangeably. However, because American Alpines result from crossbreeding, they cannot be described as "Purebred". The registration papers of all Alpines will designate if the animal is French or American Alpine. At dairy goat shows, French and American Alpines compete against each other and are shown in the same "Alpine" breed division.

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 American Goat Society

The French Alpine is sleek, short-haired, and multicolored. It tends to look larger, "rangier," and more fine boned than the Toggenburg, with more space between the ground and the underline of the body. Although the angularity and width should still be present, they may not be as obvious as in the Toggenburg . The head should be wide between the very alert eyes, but because of its long body, the width may not be as apparent as in other breeds. The "dish" in the bridge of the nose will be less severe than other breeds, sometimes being almost straight. The muzzle may not appear to be as wide as deep, and the ears may be longer than the Toggenburg, although just as alert.

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British Goat Society

This goat is black with white Swiss markings and has been developed in the UK. The goat should be rangy with a short fine coat. The overall effect is a most impressive animal when the black coat acquires its summer gloss. The breed can be highly individual in character and tends to be a breed for enthusiasts who like a challenge.

British Alpines generally have long lactations. An average 24 hour yield of 4.09 Kg. at 3.77% butterfat and 2.74% protein was obtained by considering data from all British Alpines entered in B.G.S. recognized milking trials in a recent year (459 performances).

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 Canadian Goat Society

The Alpine is one of the Swiss breeds, and is acceptable in any color pattern, although bucks with solid white or standard Toggenburg color and markings are faulted. Ears are upright; the bridge of the nose is straight or slightly dished.

Color patterns in the Alpine are often referred to by French names: the illustration shows a cou clair (light-colored neck) broken with a wide white belt. Other color patterns are cou blanc (white neck, black rear quarters), sundgau (black with white facial stripes, white below knees and hocks, white on either side of the tail), and chamoisée (any shade or mixture of brown, often with a black stripe along the back and white markings on the face) or two-tone chamoisée (usually a lighter brown on the forequarters). A "broken" pattern has large white areas obscuring the basic colors.
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« Reply #53 on: March 08, 2012, 12:24:29 PM »

Alpine Breed History

 Goats were the first animals domesticated by man. Bones of goats have been found in caves along with evidence of human inhabitation of those caves. One of the goat remains had evidence of a healed broken leg that could have only healed under the protection of humans. That animal would have died in the wild. Her remains have been carbon dated to 12 to 15,000 years ago. These goats were the Persian (Middle Eastern) goat Pashang. All European Mountain Goats descend from the Pashang goat, also known as the Bezoar goat. This includes our present day Alpines and the other breed variations based on color including the Saanen, Toggenburg, and Oberhasli. Alpines were named for their home mountain range, the Alps. Once you get to know the Alpines friendly curious personality, you wonder who domesticated whom?

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Over thousands of years, natural selection developed the Alpine breed with superior agility to survive on steep mountain slopes. They developed a perfect sense of balance. The breed maintained its ability to survive in arid regions. European goat herders started selective breeding for milk production and favorite colors.

The Alpines adaptability, sense of balance, and personality made them good candidates for voyages. Early voyages were made feasible by taking along goats for milk and meat. The early sea captains often left a pair of goats on islands along their shipping routes. On return voyages, they could stop and catch a meal or a fresh source of milk. Today Alpines can be found thriving in nearly every climate and the goat is the most common farm animal found around the world.

When the first settlers came to America, they brought along their milch goats. Captain John Smith brought milch goats over on the Mayflower. A 1630 census of Jamestown lists goats as one of their most valuable assets. Swiss breeds along with Spanish and Austrian goats were brought to North America from 1590's to 1700. The Austrian and Spanish breeds were similar to the Swiss breeds though smaller. Cross breeding produced a common American goat.

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1904 was a turning point for goats in America. The 1904 World’s Fair, in St. Louis Missouri, held the first dairy goat show in America. The Missouri Historical Review said “The first provision made at a World’s Fair for a display of Milch Goats brought to the Exposition some choice imported and home bred specimens of that valuable type.” At the same World’s Fair, Carl Hagenbeck imported two Schwarzwald Alpine does from the Black Forest of Germany. They were displayed in a natural setting mimicking the Alps Mountains in Hagenbeck's Wild Animal Paradise. More than 20 million people attended the 1904 World’s Fair and had the opportunity to watch Alpine Antics. After the fair Hagenbeck’s goats were shipped to Maryland. Their history is a mystery. Also in 1904 Frenchman Joseph Crepin and Canadian Oscar Dufresne, imported a group of Alpines to Canada and California. The American Milk Goat Record Association (now ADGA) was started in 1904. The official spelling of milch changed to milk in the USA. Interest in milk goats was spreading across America.

In 1906 Mrs. Edward Roby of Chicago worked to create an "American Goat" that would help to provide a safe tuberculosis free milk supply for the children of Chicago. These were a cross of common American goats and imported Swiss genetics. Her crossbred goats could have become American Alpines had there been a registry at that time. In 1915 a wild Alpine type goat was taken from the Guadeloupe islands. She produced 1600 lbs. of milk in 310 days.

From 1904 to 1922, 160 Saanen were imported to the United States. From 1893 to 1941, 190 Toggenburg were imported. Common American goats were then crossed with the superior Toggenburg and Saanen goats. This breeding up program was very successful. In 1921, Irmagarde Richards speculated that the success of the breeding up program was due to common American goats having a similar European ancestry to the Purebred Swiss goats. Since the resulting animals often didn't match the color requirements for Saanen and Toggenburg, the animals became grade Alpines.

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French Alpines

French Alpines were first imported to the United States in 1922, by Dr. Charles P. Delangle. Delangle was an accomplished scholar, member of the French Academy and close personal friend of Mr. Joseph Crepin. Crepin was the chief authority on French capriculture at the time and author of influential book, La Chevre. In the Fall of 1922, as hundreds of goats came down from their summer pastures high in the Alpes, to winter in the Alpine valleys, Mr. Crepin helped Dr. Delangle select 19 does and 3 bucks from these huge herds.

The two then transported the 22 selected animals to Paris for shipment to America. Going by steamer, they spent quarantine in Cuba and arrived finally in America at the port in New Orleans. From there they continued overland by rail to California. Dr. Delangle's herd name was "Alpine Goat Dairy" but it was short lived. He was in poor health and had conflicts with a number of goat breeders, including the Goat Association Board of Directors. On August 20, 1923 he was expelled from the American Milk Goat Record Association. Shortly there-after, he sold and gave away his herd and apparently left the world of goats. However, Dr. Delangle’s legacy lives on as all goats registered as “French Alpines” directly descend from the 22 animals he selected and imported in 1922
 


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Rock Alpines

Rock Alpines were created by crossbreeding goats of the 1904 and 1922 importations. In 1904, through Frenchman Joseph Crepin an importation of Alpines including Saanens and Toggs was brought to Canada. Mary E. Rock of California purchased some of these because of the illness of her little daughter. One doe from the 1904 importation was a CouBlanc named Molly Crepin. She is the only imported coublanc doe of record. She then acquired French Alpines from the 1922 importation. Rock Alpines were the result of breeding these animals together without any other outside genetics. Rock Alpines were the finest of their time and regularly won at shows and milking competitions. The Saanens used were either Sables or color carriers. One of her Saanen does was named Damfino. She was a black and white Saanen. When a friend asked, "How come the color?” she replied "Dam-if-I-no" and that became the doe's name. (And you thought the Sable debate was new) Mrs. Rock's herd name was "Little Hill". She was an avid writer and contributed articles to popular goat publications for many years. The American Milk Goat Record Association recognized Rock Alpines as a breed in 1931. AGS recognized Rock Alpines. Rock Alpines flourished until World War II. Rock Alpines have not been registered for many years now, but their excellent genetics have been absorbed into the American Alpine herd.

British Alpines

British Alpines look like black and white Toggs. They also resemble the Grison breed of Switzerland. British Alpines were first bred in England after Sedgemere Faith, a female Sundgau goat was imported to England from the Paris Zoo in 1903. The British Alpine Section of the British Goat Society herd book was opened in 1925. Allan Rogers imported British Alpines to America in the 1950's. In America, British Alpines are no longer registered separately, but as Sundgau in the French and American Alpine herdbooks. Sundgau is the name of the hilly geographic region near the French/German/Swiss border along the Rhine River.

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 Swiss Alpine

Swiss Alpines, now called Oberhasli, have a warm red-brown coat with black trimmings along the muzzle, face, back, and belly. This coloring is known as chamoisee for Alpines. The Oberhasli come from the Brienzer region of Switzerland near Bern. The first Oberhasli were imported into the United States in the early nineteen hundreds. Three Swiss Alpines (called Schwartzenberg-Guggisberger in a 1918 USDA Farmers Bulletin) came with Fred Stucker’s 1906 importation, but their descendants were not kept pure. Purebred Oberhasli descend from four does and one buck imported in 1936 by Dr. H.O. Pence of Kansas City, Missouri and identified as Swiss Alpines. In 1937 Dr. Pence wrote, “I was particularly interested in pure blooded animals, long lactations, large quantities of milk with extra fine quality. This I found in Switzerland. The goats were in the Alps. The secretary of the goat association personally conducted a tour of 10 different herds of hundreds of goats of different breeds. After seeing the herds of the various breeds, I chose the Swiss Alpine, which are a rich chamoise in color with black inside of ears and tips with black stripe down the entire back, black feet. They are hornless and have been for over thirty years period.” Three of the four does had been bred to different bucks while still in Switzerland. Purebred descendants were registered as Swiss Alpines, while the crossbreeds were registered as American Alpines. In 1941, Dr. Pence sold his Swiss Alpines in two divided groups. One of the groups was eventually lost in the 1950's while the other ended up in California, owned by Esther Oman. Her herd names were Patterswiss and Play Fair. For the next thirty years she was one of the few breeders preserving the Swiss Alpine in the United States. The pedigree of most purebred Oberhasli can be traced to Mrs. Oman's herd. In 1968 Oberhasli breeders first asked ADGA for recognition as a distinct breed with a separate herdbook. In 1979 ADGA recognized Swiss Alpine as a separate breed and the name was changed to Oberhasli. In 1980 the Oberhasli herdbook was created and these animals were pulled from the Alpine herdbook. No doubt Oberhasli genetics are still a part of the American Alpine gene pool.
 
American Alpines

American Alpines are an American original. This breed is the result of crossbreeding with French or American Alpines. This program has brought in genetics from several breeds as explained above and gives the American Alpine one of the largest genetic pools of any goat breed in America. The results have been dramatic with American Alpines setting production records, winning at shows and being a generally larger stronger animal than the original French version. American Alpines represent the success of hybrid vigor.




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Information for this article was excerpted from my book in progress “The History of Goats in America” I want to thank all of you who have contributed to this project. This article is the result of dozens of people’s effort to save our history. If you have an interesting bit of goat history to contribute, please send to:
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