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Mustang Sally Farm

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Re: World Poultry News
« Reply #15 on: April 07, 2013, 12:16:56 AM »

Shanghai Begins Culling Poultry
05 April 2013


CHINA - Authorities in Shanghai on Thursday (4 April) closed a live poultry trading zone in an agricultural products market and began slaughtering all birds there after detecting H7N9 bird flu virus from samples of pigeon from the market.

Meanwhile, a person who had close contact with a dead H7N9 flu patient in Shanghai has been under treatment in quarantine after developing symptoms of fever, running nose and throat itching, the Shanghai Municipal Health and Family Planning Commission said.
 
China's Ministry of Agriculture said it found the H7N9 virus from pigeon samples collected at the Huhuai wholesale agricultural products market in Songjiang district of Shanghai.
 
After gene sequence analysis, the national avian flu reference laboratory concluded that the strain of the H7N9 virus found on pigeons was highly congenetic with those found on persons infected with H7N9 virus, the ministry said.
 
The Shanghai municipal agricultural commission said it has ordered proper disposal of the culled birds, their excrements and contaminated food as well as disinfection of the market and vehicles that carried them and other things that have contacts with them.
 
The commission will also investigate and track where the pigeons came from, it said.
 
Meanwhile, the agency ordered the closure of the live poultry trading areas of two markets in Minhang district after samples there were found with H7 flu virus. Shanghai reported two more deaths from the H7N9 flu Thursday, bringing the death toll from the new deadly strain to five around the country.
 
The city has reported six infections to date, and four have died, according to the Shanghai Municipal Health and Family Planning Commission.
 
Of the rest two, a 67-year-old woman was in critical condition and a four-year-old baby was recovering from mild illness, it added.
 
Of the latest two deaths, a 52-year-old woman surnamed Yu died at Huashan Hospital on Wednesday and was confirmed infected with the H7N9 strain on Thursday.
 
Yu developed a low fever on 27 March and sent to an intensive care unit of Huashan Hospital on 2 April. She died on the following day.
 
The other case involved a 48-year-old man surnamed Chu, a poultry transporter from Rugao in neighboring Jiangsu province.
 
He developed symptoms of cough on 28 March. After having a fever on Monday, he went to a private clinic for treatment. The man then sought help in the Tongji Hospital in Shanghai in the early hours of Wednesday after his condition worsened.
 
Chu died three hours after being admitted to the hospital. He was confirmed infected with the H7N9 virus on Thursday. Eight people who had close contact with him have shown no abnormal symptoms.
 
So far, China has confirmed 14 H7N9 cases - six in Shanghai, four in Jiangsu, three in Zhejiang and one in Anhui, in the first known human infections of the lesser-known strain. Of all, four died in Shanghai and one died in Zhejiang.
 
China's health authorities have promised transparency and cooperation to the World Health Organization in regards to human infections of the new strain of flu.
 
The Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention said Wednesday that no human-to-human transmission of H7N9 has been discovered and no epidemiological connection between these cases has been found.
 
Health authorities and hospitals in many Chinese provinces have been on high alert for the virus.
 
The health authorities in the southern Guangdong province have set up an expert team headed by Zhong Nanshan, a renowned medical expert, to offer advices on epidemic control and prevention.
 
Zhong, director of the Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Diseases, is credited with helping to identify and then stem the 2003 outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS).
 
In Nanchang, capital of Jiangxi province, which neighbors Zhejiang, five hospitals have been selected and ordered to be ready to treat H7N9 patients, though no cases have been reported there.
 
South China's Guangxi Zhuang autonomous region has ordered an inventory on medical supplies and respirator deployment for potential H7N9 cases


Mustang Sally Farm

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Re: World Poultry News
« Reply #16 on: April 13, 2013, 09:39:06 AM »

Chickens with Bigger Gizzards Shown to be More Efficient
12 April 2013


FRANCE - According to animal scientists, farmers could further protect the environment by breeding chickens with larger digestive organs. This research, published in the February issue of the "Journal of Animal Science", could solve a major problem in poultry production.

In some areas, large poultry operations release nitrogen and phosphorus into the environment. These pollutants come from chicken waste, and they can cause ecological problems like algal blooms in rivers and lakes.
 
“These result in a loss of plant and animal species and have negative impacts on the use of water for human consumption,” said study co-author Dr Agnes Narcy in an interview.
 
Dr Narcy, along with and fellow researchers from the French National Institute For Agricultural Research (INRA) and France’s Center of Agricultural Research for Development (CIRAD), bred chickens to test whether selecting for larger digestive organ size could reduce the amount of waste that the chicken excreted.
 
The key organs were the proventriculus and the gizzard. The proventriculus is a stomach-like organ that softens food using acids and digestive enzymes. The gizzard is a compartment with thick, muscular walls that grinds food. Together, these organs prepare foods for digestion in the small intestine.
 
Dr Narcy and fellow researchers hypothesized that chickens with larger, better functioning digestive organs would absorb more nutrients from their feed and therefore produce less waste. To test this hypothesis, the researchers selected chickens and raised three lines with differing abilities to digest feed.
 
After rearing nine generations of each line, the researchers found that chickens with larger digestive organs ate less feed and produced less waste. The researchers concluded that selecting for this trait could make poultry production more environmentally and economically sustainable. They say that a farmer raising 20,000 chickens could save 9.76 tons of feed per hatch.
 
“Furthermore, such selection would not affect body composition and meat and bone quality traits at slaughter age,” said Dr Narcy.
 
Dr Narcy said the next step is for animal scientists to identify the genes that control digestive efficiency in chickens. By pinpointing the right genes, researchers could help farmers select the most efficient chickens for breeding.
 
This study is titled Reducing the environmental impact of poultry breeding by genetic selection.


Mustang Sally Farm

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Re: World Poultry News
« Reply #17 on: April 22, 2013, 06:43:50 AM »

Chicken Prices Skyrocket in West Bank
19 April 2013


PALESTINIAN TERRITORY - The Palestinian National Authority (PNA) authorised on Thursday (18 April) Palestinian traders to import live chicken from Israel after the price of a single kilogram of chicken passed 22 Shekels in the West Bank markets, representing an increase of 37.5 per cent from the normal price of chickens which were 16 Shekels per kilogram.

Gulfnews.com reports that the Palestinian Ministry of National Economy and Ministry of Agriculture have agreed to the importation during this market crisis.
 
The two ministries instructed traders to come up with medical and vet certificates, financial clearance letters and import permits and to start importing live chicken from Israel at the earliest. The two ministries said the target price in the West Bank markets is 18 Shekels and that they are hoping that the chicken price will drop shortly.
 
A senior official at the Ministry of Agriculture attributed the increase in the chicken price in the West Bank to an 80 per cent increase in the price of

Mustang Sally Farm

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Re: World Poultry News
« Reply #18 on: April 27, 2013, 07:57:31 AM »

Glycerol in Diet Improves Broiler Growth, Efficiency
26 April 2013


TURKEY - Glycerol inclusion at 40 or 80g per kg of diet can be used as an effective source of energy in broilers, especially from 0 to 21 days of age, according to new research from Turkey. There were no significant effects on carcass yield although the lipid content of one leg muscle was reduced by glycerol.

In a study published in Journal of Applied Poultry Research, E. Topal of the Turkish Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs and M. Ozdogan from Adnan Menderes University report their evaluation of the effect of various amounts of crude glycerol on the growth performance, internal organ weights and chemical composition of drumstick muscles of broiler chickens.

A total of 360 Ross 308 broiler chicks (day-old) received diets with 0, 40 or 80g of glycerol per kg of diet for 42 days.

Body weight gain was improved (P<0.01) with the inclusion of 40 or 80g of glycerol per kg of diet at 21 days. Broilers fed the diet with 80g of glycerol per kg had the highest (P<0.05) bodyweight gains at 42 days.

These levels of crude glycerol did not statistically affect feed consumption but the inclusion of glycerol improved the feed conversion ratio at 0 to 21 days of age and 0 to 42 days of age (P<0.05).

No negative effect of glycerol inclusion was observed on the carcass yield or the internal organ weights of broilers except for the heart weight of males.

Glycerol inclusion at 40 or 80g per of diet can be used as an effective source of energy in broilers, especially from 0 to 21 days of age, according to the researchers.

They added that inclusion of glycerol significantly decreased ether extract in the drumstick muscles of both males (P<0.05) and females (P<0.01).

Reference

Topal E. and M. Ozdogan. 2013. Effects of glycerol on the growth performance, internal organ weights, and drumstick muscle of broilers. J. Appl. Poult. Res. 22(1):146-151. doi: 10.3382/japr.2012-00589

Mustang Sally Farm

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Re: World Poultry News
« Reply #19 on: May 05, 2013, 11:02:04 AM »

Genetic Selection for Leg Soundness in Broilers is Feasible
03 May 2013


US - A new study shows that it is possible to select for improved leg soundness in broilers without having a significant adverse effects on bodyweight or carcass traits.

Simultaneous genetic improvement in leg soundness and innovative husbandry practices should improve broiler welfare without significant adverse effects on production efficiency. That is the conclusion of new research at the University of Georgia in Athens.
 
A multiple trait linear-threshold model has been used by R. Rekaya of the University of Georgia and co-authors there and with Cobb-Vantress Inc. to analyse data for bodyweight, residual feed intake, breast meat yield (BMY), conformation score (CS), area (AR), tibial dyschondroplasia, valgus, varus, and rotated tibia. Leg soundness traits were considered as binary responses.
 
Their work was published recently in Poultry Science. At the liability scale, the model included the fixed effects of flock-week of hatch, and sex of the bird and the genetic additive effect, and the error terms as random. The random maternal effect was included in the model only for bodyweight.
 
A full Bayesian implementation of the model was straightforward even though large number of traits and missing records were present, report the researchers.
 
As expected, binary traits have the lowest heritability. Heritability ranged from 0.12 for tibial dyschondroplasia to 0.44 for BMY.
 
Genetic correlations between bodyweight and conformation traits were moderate to high.
 
Residual feed intake was negatively correlated with bodyweight (−0.15), AR (−0.13), BMY (−0.04), and CS (−0.12).
 
Genetic correlation between leg soundness traits were generally low and negative with the exception of the correlation between valgus and varus (−0.70) and between varus and rotated tibia (−0.39).
 
Genetic correlations between bodyweight, BMY, CS, and AR with leg soundness traits were in general negative and low in magnitude.
 
Selecting for improved leg soundness will have minimal effect on bodyweight and carcass traits, concluded Rekaya and co-authors. Furthermore, genetic improvement in residual feed intake will result in improvements in carcass traits.

Mustang Sally Farm

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Re: World Poultry News
« Reply #20 on: May 12, 2013, 08:34:28 AM »

Antibiotic Resistance in Egg Farm Study Raises Concerns
10 May 2013


INDIA - About three per cent of egg and environmental samples from farms in Bareilly were found to be positive for Salmonella but the relatively high antibiotic resistance among the bacteria was raised as a concern by scientists carrying out the study.

The prevalence of Salmonella bacteria at egg farms was found to be low by Renu Singh of the Central Avian Research Institute in Izatnagar and co-authors there and at M J.P. Rohilkhand University in Bareilly and Salim Ali Centre for Ornithology and Natural History in Coimbatore. However, they express concern that the relatively high resistance among the bacteria present in poultry could pose a risk to public health as well as therapeutic problems to consumers.

Their latest study, published in Food Control, was carried out to detect Salmonella spp. contamination of poultry and poultry environmental samples from layer farms in Bareilly and to determine the antibiotic susceptibility profiles and serotype distribution of the isolates.

A total of 720 samples of egg, feed, water, cloaca and faeces were collected and screened for the presence of Salmonella.

Twenty-four (3.3 per cent) of the samples tested were found to be positive for Salmonella. Out of 180 chicken eggs, 120 poultry feed samples, 120 poultry water samples, 120 faecal samples and 180 cloacal swabs, the isolation frequencies of Salmonella spp. were 3.3 per cent, 2.5 per cent, 3.3 per cent, 2.5 per cent and 4.4 per cent, respectively.

Among the isolates, Salmonella Typhimurium was the predominant serovar.

The antibiogram testing revealed differential multi-drug resistance among Salmonella isolates in poultry and poultry environment samples. All the isolates were resistant to clindamycin, oxacillin, penicillin and vancomycin whereas sensitivity was recorded for ampicillin, enrofloxacin and colistin.

As a result, the relatively high resistance among the bacteria present in poultry could pose public health and therapeutic problems to consumers as potential vehicles of resistant Salmonella foodborne infections, concluded Singh and co-authors.

Reference

Singh R., A.S. Yadav, V. Tripathi and R.P. Singh. 2013. Antimicrobial resistance profile of Salmonella present in poultry and poultry environment in north India. Food Control. 33(2):545–548. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2013.03.041

a  243122, U.P., Indiab Department of Animal Science,

Mustang Sally Farm

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Re: World Poultry News
« Reply #21 on: May 20, 2013, 07:13:43 AM »

Human H7N9 Cases Linked to Poultry or Live Markets
17 May 2013


CHINA - Researchers have established a clear link between 12 cases of human cases of influenza A(H7N9) and direct exposure to poultry or live poultry markets in Huzhou city.

Researchers have analysed the association between influenza A(H7N9) confirmed cases and exposure to poultry in Huzhou city in Zhejiang province.

The main authors of the paper, pulbished in Eurosurveillance, were based at Huzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention and Institut Pasteur of Shanghai, Chinese Academy of Sciences in  Shanghai.

All cases (n=12) had a history of direct exposure to poultry or live poultry markets.

They detected A(H7N9)-positive poultry samples from each site that was epidemiologically associated with cases.

None of the cases’ close contacts tested positive.

After closure of the markets, no new cases were identified, suggesting an epidemiological link between poultry exposure and A(H7N9) virus infection.

Reference

Han J., M. Jin, P. Zhang, J. Liu, L. Wang, D. Wen X. Wu, G. Liu, Y. Zou, X. Lv, X. Dong, B. Shao, S. Gu, D. Zhou, Q. Leng, C. Zhang and K Lan. 2013. Epidemiological link between exposure to poultry and all influenza A(H7N9) confirmed cases in Huzhou city, China, March to May 2013. Eurosurveillance. 18(20):pii=20481.

Mustang Sally Farm

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Re: World Poultry News
« Reply #22 on: July 24, 2013, 11:15:34 PM »

Pakistan Poultry Sector Shows Great Export Potential
24 July 2013


PAKISTAN - Federal Minister for the Ministry of National Food Security and Research Sikandar Hayat Khan Bosan said that Pakistan has great export potential in the poultry industry and can also benefit from growing demand for Halal food the world over.

Daily Times reports that the Minister expressed these views during a meeting with a delegation of poultry industry here at the ministry.

Earlier, the Minister was briefed on the state of poultry industry by K&N’s Chief Executive Khalil Sattar.

Mr Sattar said that the contribution of the poultry industry in gross domestic product (GDP) was 1.7 per cent while at the same time it was providing 1.7 million jobs to skilled, semi-skilled and unskilled workers.

Moreover, the poultry industry has also played a pivotal role in alleviating poverty by improving rural economy.

While discussing ways for sustainable growth in poultry production, the delegation requested the federal minister to take notice of the dearth of well-equipped veterinary laboratories at the district level, particularly in intensive poultry producing areas of the country.

The minister assured the delegation that steps would be taken to introduce modern diagnostic facilities in required areas to improve poultry output.

Mustang Sally Farm

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Re: World Poultry News
« Reply #23 on: July 28, 2013, 06:27:11 AM »

India's Poultry Market is Booming
26 July 2013
Indbro - Research and Breeding Farms Private Limited

INDIA - In a review of the country's poultry industry, Dr T. Kotaiah writes that, between 2003 and 2012, the human population of India has gone up from 1.06 to 1.2 billion and is growing.

Fortunately, the economy of the country has been healthy and the purchasing capacity of the average Indian is on the rise, writes Dr Kotaiah. Furthermore, the food requirements of the country are growing. Consumption of non-vegetarian food goes up with increasing purchasing power. Most Indians are now in a position to buy chicken and eggs at reasonable prices. The open market policy of the government opened access to the best of the products in the world and also created pressure on local producers in terms of quality production.

The policy of self-sufficiency pursued for the last 60 years by the Government of India has been paying off and India does not import the basic food ingredients like food grains. Grain production of the country is on the rise although it represents just 2.5 per cent of agricultural output. India is self-sufficient in grains and is also exporting. The export of grains is resulting in the price rise of the grains within the country, which is benefiting and encouraging arable farmers to stick to agriculture activity and improve.

The animal production industry has to put up with the prices but the rising price of grains and oilseeds is creating enormous pressure on the livestock sector by increasing the cost of production. Only two of the livestock sectors are commercialised in India: the dairy sector consisting of buffaloes is under tremendous pressure between rapidly increasing input costs and slow increase of the price of milk while the poultry sector is most promising in terms of organised production and efficiency. The industry is maintaining the growth of eight to 12 per cent annually in spite of increasing input costs and not that fast improvement of the poultry products. The prices of eggs and chicken are also on the rise.

If we examine the rise in prices of eggs compared with layer feed prices, we can see the squeeze between the increased in feed prices against the rise in egg prices. Similar is the case with the broiler feed prices and the farm-gate broiler prices.

 



Feed - now representing 70 per cent of the total cost of production - is going up at a faster rate than the prices of eggs and chicken meat. The production rise is still phenomenal in spite of the above situation. Besides feed, the cost of other inputs like labour and power has also gone up.

The poultry industry can be divided in to two distinct entities and the mitigation strategies are different for both.

Layer Industry

India is the third largest producer of table eggs in numbers after China and US. It has recently overtaken Mexico, which was the third largest egg producer.

Commercial layers in India are predominately white (>95 per cent). Few brown layers introduced could not maintain the market share due to higher feed intake and no price advantage for brown eggs.

Layer birds bred and adapted to Indian climate, feed and the market situation holds the largest share. International brands like Bovans, Lohmann and Hyline are also present in the market. The grandparents (GP) of the multinational brands are imported and multiplied.

Layer chick placements remained constant for three years between 2004 and 2006 due to bird flu but have been going up steadily since. The placement of layer chicks was about 140 million in 2002 which rose to 220 million by 2012.

All commercial layer birds are in cages. Three-tier California cages in raised floor houses are common. Due to environment issues and the pressure of expansion, closed housed with multi-tier cages, mechanised egg collection, automatic feeding and manure-drying are being examined for their economic viability. The individual house capacity is usually 100,000 birds.

Around 70 per cent of the layer farming is in the southern states. The lower land prices and grain prices as well as less variation in seasonal climates are the reasons for the distribution. Separate brood/grow facilities situated in the closed vicinity is the order of the day. The growing areas are used on 'all in, all out' basis. Layer flocks are mostly in multi-age group farms.

The number of vaccinations for the layers have been going up with growing awareness of new diseases and new variants of the same disease. Many vaccines are imported but there are vaccine manufacturing companies in India. Bivalent Marek’s vaccines are prevalent, yet “Rispens” is not permitted for use. India does not vaccinate against highly pathogenic avian influenza (AI) but rather practices a 'stamping-out' policy in case out outbreaks. There is government monitoring system for AI guided by OIE regulations.

Least-cost formulations are used to feed layer birds and there is a constant search for cheaper, unconventional feed materials. Feed prices fluctuate during the year, with the grain becoming cheaper during the harvest and more expensive again just before the beginning of the crop season. Many layer farmers concentrate on bulk purchase of grains in season to save costs. More than one grain is being used. Most layer feeds are low-energy rations, having around 2,400 kcal of energy.

The eggs are being sold in numbers. Grading, packing and branding is not widespread. Few attempts to sell them as graded and value-added eggs have not been very successful due to limited cost-effectiveness in pricing and volume of sales.

Layer farming is concentrated around few areas and lot of eggs move from place to place within the country. Various state governments are moving to enhance the local availability of eggs by giving incentives to farming. Exports of table eggs went up during 2002-2004 but is not increasing due to trade restrictions from the buying countries. India has half a dozen egg powder plants exporting egg powder. Many state governments are implementing midday meal schemes and serve eggs in the menu for the school children. Eggs are also served as a part of the hospital food. Eggs and bread is the popular “fast-food”, which enhances the consumption of eggs enormously.

With good farming practices, production is up to 320 eggs per hen housed in a 365-day laying cycle. The average production of hen is calculated at 300 eggs per hen housed.

Per-capita consumption of eggs has gone up from 36 in 2002 to 48 in 2012.

To increase the availability of eggs in the rural areas, backyard poultry backed with “mother units” is being encouraged by the governments as an alternative system of poultry production to augment egg production while addressing the health issues in poultry.

Broiler Production

India is the fourth largest broiler producer after China, US and Brazil.

There has been a phenomenal increase in broiler production between 2002 to 2012 in spite of the crisis that arose out of bird flu scare in 2004-2006.

Parent breeder placements are estimated to be 30 million in 2012 against 1.5 million in 2002. They are concentrated  in a few pockets and there is a heavy movement of hatching eggs to less productive areas. There are more than 500 breeding farms in the country housing the broiler parent stocks. The numbers went up sharply from 2007 to 2010 due to raising demand in chicks. The numbers have since stagnated due to reduced chick sales. The numbers are being compensated by enhanced capacities by few breeding units who grow their own chicks as a part of their downward integration. The stagnation could be a short gap after sharp rise due to changing trends in placements.

Most of the broiler breeders are in cages with artificial insemination. Best of the breeding flocks produce up to 200 hatching eggs and 160 chicks. Excellent health standards are maintained and there are 'all in, all out' breeder flock units. Two-tier California cages in open-sided raised-floor houses are common. Due to the raising concern about the environment, trials on closed houses with multi-tier cages are being put up as an alternative cost-effective housing system. Power availability/cost, success in manure handling and artificial insemination result in multi-tier cages will decide on the future systems.

Most - 93 per cent - of broilers are marketed live in India and so there is limited opportunity to transport birds to distant locations. Hence, local integrators are coming up with huge volumes of parent stock and broiler rearing. The biggest of them have more than one million parent stock producing more than one 100,000 chicks a day.

All multi-national brands of broiler chicks are available in India produced from imported grandparents. Aviagen has established a great grandparent (GGP) farm in India. There are local pure line breeding programmes running in India, producing birds scientifically in open-sided houses with lower energy feeds. Indian-bred birds dominate the replacements.

All the commercial broiler chicks are raised on deep litter on 'all in, all out' basis. In 2002, 80 per cent of the chicks produced were sold as day-old chicks and the farmers were rearing them. In 2012, the number of chicks sold has come down to 50 per cent and the rest are reared by the companies who hatch them as a part of integrated production. The trend shows that the shift in rearing may continue.

Due to large-scale rearing of broilers, reduced production cycle and marketing live birds, the live broiler market has remained speculative. Single flock-growers lose money when the prices are down and cannot realise the benefit of high prices prevailing for few weeks. Larger scale rearing companies are going in for contract farming to utilise the same facility to increase their volumes. The small growers are becoming a part of the big company which is proving to be healthy growth of the industry.

Broiler feed, which used to be all mash, is being processed in to crumbles and pellets. Efficient feeds rather than least-cost formulations are favoured. Feed conversion ratio and overall cost of production are considered more important than the cost of feed alone. Broiler rearing companies are establishing large feed processing plants. Most of the pre-starter and starter feed is steamed and crumbled. FCRs are coming down - from 2.0 in 2002 to 1.75 in 2012, with the best of the flock recording 1.5 at 2.0kg bodyweight.

Broiler farms are open-sided; controlled houses are not even five per cent of the total volume. The main reason being the live bird market into which the birds reared under climate-controlled houses do not fit in besides the high capital costs and power requirements involved.

Live broiler markets fluctuate seasonally. Summer prices are high due to reduced production and availability under open-housing system. Festive seasons record low prices due to reduced consumption as some sects abstain from eating meat during this time.

Only seven per cent of the broilers are further processed into chicken products. This volume is not going up due to lack of cold chain availability and traditional consumption habits. People still like to buy a live bird slaughter and cook in their own way.

Future Prospects

The outlook for poultry production in India looks bright. The growth of layer business is estimated at six per cent and broilers at 12 per cent annually. Government policies to augment domestic grain production and ensure the availability to the poultry sector without exporting the grains directly will encourage the industry to grow.

India may not be an exporting country for eggs and chicken but the industry can assure feeding the more than one billion human population with quality eggs and chicken at cheaper prices than anywhere else in the world.

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Re: World Poultry News
« Reply #24 on: August 04, 2013, 11:44:58 AM »

Risk Factors Hens Face When Laying Eggs on the Floor
02 August 2013




UK - Hens usually prefer to lay their eggs in nests but it is not unusual for some eggs to be laid on the floor of the hen house or on the ground and in some cases the incidence of floor eggs can be quite high.

A new study aims to identify the most important risk factors for floor laying in hens and explore whether any of the methods that are currently employed by farmers to deal with the problem actually work.

The survey, led by academics in the University of Bristol’s School of Veterinary Sciences, hopes to find out from egg producing farmers how widespread the floor egg problem is in UK farms and to gather information about what factors might affect the issue.

The researchers would particularly like to understand if there is any association between the severity of the floor eggs issue and areas, such as:
1.Different breeds of hens, i.e. whether there is a genetic influence.
2.The level and type of intervention by the farmer to reduce the number of floor eggs.
3.General flock management practices, such as diet and husbandry.
4.Housing conditions.
5.The age of hens when they come into lay and peak in their production.

Margarita Maltseva-Williams, a postgraduate in Clinical Veterinary Science, who is leading the study, said: "Very little research has been done on why some hens lay their eggs on the floor of the hen house or on the ground and as far as I am aware this is the first survey to explore the issue on commercials farms.

"Floor laying in hens can be a real problem for farmers and we hope the findings from our study will help them and their flocks in the future."

Floor eggs can have increased risk of being soiled by manure or being cracked. They may also not be found quickly by the egg collector. Consequently, floor eggs are more likely to be contaminated by bacteria, which reduces their shelf life and makes them more likely to carry food-borne pathogens. Broken floor eggs may also trigger egg eating by birds in the flock, which can be hard to stop once it starts.

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Re: World Poultry News
« Reply #25 on: August 12, 2013, 10:45:28 AM »
Featured Articles


High Dietary Levels of Biotin and Zinc to Improve Health of Foot Pads in Broilers Exposed to Litter with Critical Moisture Content
06 August 2013

 


Experiments designed to induce foot pad dermatitis show the benefits of higher levels of zinc (especially in the form of zinc methionine) and biotin in the diet to minimise the risk and severity of this important welfare issue.

Foot pad dermatitis (FPD) is a widespread problem in poultry production and constitutes a welfare issue.

In Poultry Science recently, A. Abd El-Wahab from the University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation in Germany and co-authors at Egypt's Mansoura University and Lohmann Animal Health published their study with the objective to test potentially prophylactic effects of higher biotin and zinc levels in the diet of broilers exposed to critical litter moisture content (35 per cent water) on the development of FPD.

Two trials were performed in each of four groups of one-week-old male broilers (Ross 708) for 33 days. The pens of all groups (25 birds in each) were littered with wood shavings of critical moisture content.

Two groups were fed high levels of zinc as zinc oxide (150mg per kg of diet), with normal levels of biotin (300µg per kg of diet) or high biotin (2,000µg per kg of diet). The other two groups were fed zinc as zinc-methionine (150mg per kg of diet) with normal levels of biotin (300µg per kg of diet) or high biotin (2,000µg per kg of diet).

External assessment of foot pads and measurements the moisture contents of excreta and litter were performed weekly. The signs of foot pad lesions were recorded on a seven-point scale (0 = normal skin; 7 = more than half of the foot pad is necrotic).

High biotin supplementation resulted in a reduction of 30 and 18 per cent of cases of foot pad lesions in trials 1 and 2, respectively.

The combination of zinc methionine and high biotin supplementation led to a decreased severity of FPD in a range of about 50 and 30 per cent in trials 1 and 2, respectively.

In broilers fed the diet containing zinc oxide and normal biotin levels, about 28 and 24 per cent of the birds had the scores of 6 and 7 (= high foot pad alterations), whereas in birds fed zinc methionine and high biotin, no high alterations (score = 7) in the foot pad (0 per cent) occurred in either trial.

The reearchers say their results suggest that it is advisable to combine the maximum levels of  zinc - especially in the form of zinc methionine - and high levels of biotin when clinically relevant alterations in the foot pad occur.

Reference

Abd El-Wahab A., D. Radko and J. Kamphues. 2013.

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Re: World Poultry News
« Reply #26 on: August 19, 2013, 09:12:49 AM »

Cobb Invests in New Facilities for Product Development
15 August 2013
Cobb

NETHERLANDS - New and upgraded facilities for product development are being established by Cobb in the Netherlands, adding to the extensive provision for trials in the country.



Simmes broiler trials farm at Flevoland in Central Holland

The facilities for parent stock will be centred in a new facility near Eindhoven in southern Netherlands, studying all aspects of broiler breeder management, while a new commercial broiler unit in Flevoland in central Netherlands will focus on how to achieve optimum results from the Cobb500.

This investment takes place as construction work progresses on a €13 million ($16m) project to double the size of the Cobb pedigree breeding complex at Herveld, in the province Gelderland. The enlarged complex will have 26 rearing, production and broiler development houses built to comply with the tightest biosecurity standards. The labour force is being increased to 100 to cope with the enlarged programme developing Cobb products for future market needs.

Roy Mutimer, general manager of Cobb Europe commented: "These very significant investments in the Netherlands are part of our continuing commitment to the broiler industries of Europe, Middle East and Africa. These facilities will enable us to continue to provide our customers with the best technical advice and most balanced products for many years to come."

The trials facility includes one house with 26 different compartments to accommodate males and females through the hatching egg production cycle from 20 weeks to 60 weeks of age. The pullets will be reared in a separate unit on site, so reducing the disease risk. Individual feeding and drinking provision for each compartment enables the uptake to be measured separately. Eggs are collected by compartment and automatically marked. Automatic bird weighing will give accurate daily data that will help in providing bodyweight curves to achieve optimum results.

The commercial broiler unit is an addition to two broiler trial farms that Cobb uses as part of the research and development programme in the Netherlands. This farm, with capacity for 40,000 broilers, is constructed to the highest Cobb specifications and provides 25 different sections with separate recording of feed and water uptake and weight by individual pen.

"This facility will provide a true commercial environment which is vital to understand how different breeds perform in the field, said Tom Procter, product manager of Cobb Europe. "A multiple silo enables the feed trials to review nutritional requirements of the Cobb500 broiler to help achieve optimum economic performance. Ventilation and heating is installed to Cobb global specifications, with a heat exchange system adding to the farm’s sustainability."

Mustang Sally Farm

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Re: World Poultry News
« Reply #27 on: August 26, 2013, 09:43:03 AM »

Cobb Continues to Advance in Oman
23 August 2013
Cobb

OMAN - Oman is the latest Middle East country where the Cobb500 broiler breeder is rapidly gaining ground, helping the drive for self-sufficiency.

"Traditionally Oman has been a large importer of broiler hatching eggs, with around a quarter of India’s hatching egg exports going there," said Euan Meldrum, marketing manager of Cobb Europe. "This is now changing as the industry embarks on an ambitious expansion programme with the Cobb500 now 100 percent of their parent stock.

"The country’s 3.1 million people eat an average of around 20kg of poultry a year and, with production on course to quadruple in ten years, it will be more than 50 per cent self-sufficient by 2015."

The sales growth in Oman follows the plan by Al Watania Poultry, the largest chicken producer in the Middle East, to establish a Cobb grandparent operation in Saudi Arabia that will this year begin supplying its own broiler breeder requirements.

"The Cobb500 is ideally suited to the Middle East region, adapting well to warmer climates with integrators benefiting from the breed’s efficiency right through the production chain from high chick numbers to yield advantage in the processing plant," added Euan Meldrum.

Mustang Sally Farm

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Re: World Poultry News
« Reply #28 on: September 03, 2013, 07:00:53 AM »

Caribbean Broilers in Aggressive Smart Eggs Push
02 September 2013


JAMAICA - Smart Eggs maker Caribbean Broilers (CB) is offering egg breakfast dishes to Jamaicans for free as part of an aggressive promotional campaign for the brand.

Jamaica Observer reports that the campaign will also see the food company partnering with local restaurants, each of which will feature their own unique Smart Eggs menu. Kristina Kerr, director of Market Me, which represents the brand, told Caribbean Business Report that the initiative is aimed at highlighting that eggs are "healthy and affordable" while building brand recognition for Smart Eggs, which claims to be the first and only Omega 3- enriched egg currently on the domestic market.

"We have been out since January 2012 and we still see that customers don't really understand the brand and what the differences are," Ms Kerr said. "We are aiming to increase the awareness of the brand in the market and highlight the differences between Smart Eggs and other eggs available."

A branded mobile vending cart, 'The Smart Cart', will feature prominently in the campaign, making the rounds to popular businesses, schools and fitness locations, serving up easy and quick breakfast items, including egg sandwiches and scrambled eggs, free of charge.

The Smart Egg team came to the Jamaica Observer offices on Wednesday.

Café Blue, Fromage Gourmet Market, and Toss n' Roll are among the restaurants that the Smart Eggs brand has partnered with to enhance consumption.

Jason Sharp, managing director of Café Blue, stated that the restaurant prides itself on supporting local industries and providing "fresh" and "healthy" menu offerings.

"With Smart Eggs on our menu we can offer an even healthier option for our existing egg lovers by still providing them with their favourite Café Blue treats using Omega 3-enriched eggs," Mr Sharp said.

Smart Eggs will be continuously updating its Facebook, Twitter and Instagram accounts with the location of the Smart Cart and the new options available on its menu.

Omega 3 Fatty Acids have been found to have a myriad of health benefits, including lowering blood pressure, lowering cholesterol, decreasing inflammation and lubricating joints.

CB launched Smart Eggs only months after inking a deal to acquire Chippenham Park Eggs, which gave it just under six per cent of the egg production and distribution business. The company aimed to leverage its marketing resources to push consumption closer to double the industry's capacity.

"Currently, the island's egg industry produces approximately 11 million dozen eggs annually and the CB Group, through Chippenham Park Eggs, hopes to play a major role growing the market to well over 20 million dozen," said Mark Haskins, CB Group's CEO, in a press statement at the time.

He added: "By educating the public as to how good eggs are for your mind and body, we will grow the local demand, and in turn, that will require all egg producers to collectively produce more eggs to satisfy this same demand."

Mustang Sally Farm

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Re: World Poultry News
« Reply #29 on: September 07, 2013, 10:36:24 PM »

GLOBAL POULTRY TRENDS 2013 - Asia Produces One-third of World's Broilers
03 September 2013


Global Poultry Trends 2012



Global growth in chicken meat production is slowing down but Asia maintains its share of the total, according to long-time industry watcher, Terry Evans, in the new series of 'Global Poultry Trends' for ThePoultrySite in 2013.

Global poultry meat output is expected to amount to 106.4 million tonnes in 2013, according to a forecast made by the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO). Growth has slowed annually since 2010 from around 4.5 per cent to 1.8 per cent this year. Chicken meat output accounts for some 88 per cent of world poultry meat production.

World chicken meat production (table birds plus culled layers) will likely exceed 93 million tonnes in 2013 while, according to United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) estimates, broiler meat output will amount to around 84.6 million tonnes (Table 1).

The FAO data is for 'indigenous production', which is being defined as the output from home-grown birds, plus the meat equivalent of such birds exported live.

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The rate of industry growth in chicken meat production has slowed dramatically in recent years. Between 2009 and 2011, the annual increase averaged around four per cent. However, 2012 witnessed a slowing down to about 1,.8 per cent while, in the current year, the gain will likely be under two per cent. Next year will likely witness a similar rate of increase with global chicken meat output coming close to 95 million tonnes.

In 2013, output in the Americas should exceed 41 million tonnes, while an increase in Asia will push production towards 31 million tonnes and in 2014, it should exceed 31 million tonnes or around 33 per cent of the world total (Table 1 and Figure 1). But, it must be appreciated that growth in this region is largely dependent upon what happens in China.




Figure 1. Indigenous chicken meat production in Asia and the world (million tonnes)

While the data provided by the FAO includes estimates of backyard production and also culled layers in the chicken meat totals, the USDA figures relate only to broiler output, the 2013 forecast of 84.6 million tonnes pointing to an increase of 2.2 per cent over the latest estimate for 2012 of 82.8 million tonnes (Table 1). A breakdown of this data reveals that the main contributions to growth over 2012 will come from increases of almost 400,000 tonnes and 350,000 tonnes in the US and China respectively, some 260,000 tonnes in India and nearly 200,000 tonnes in Brazil.

The demand for poultry is expected to continue growing in developing economies, particularly in India and China, reflecting population increases, improved disposable incomes and consumer taste preferences.

Global population growth has slowed to around one per cent a year. In developed countries, it is expected to average only 0.4 per cent a year between 2012 and 2022. While the growth in developing countries will also decline, it will be significantly higher than in the rest of the world. Hence it is considered that they will account for 82 per cent of the world’s population by 2022 compared with 74 per cent back in 1980.

Diseases, and in particular avian influenza, which appears to be endemic in some Asian countries, remain an important factor depressing supplies. However, it has been the spiralling costs of feed that have had the biggest influence on global chicken meat output in recent times. Fortunately, an anticipated increase in global supplies of coarse grains and soybeans for 2013/14, points to some easing in feed ingredient prices as this year progresses.

An Alltech survey on global feed production in 2012 concluded that total animal feed output in that year amounted to 959 million tonnes. Poultry accounted for the largest share with 411 million tonnes or 43 per cent, having grown by around eight per cent from the 2011 estimate. Of the poultry total, 60 per cent was for broilers, the remainder being fed to the other poultry classes.

A further positive sign to give demand a boost is the likelihood that disposable incomes may grow in some countries. However, in many instances, chicken producers’ profits will depend on careful supply management, as too rapid growth could plunge industries back into losses.

Chicken Meat Production Trends in Asia

In the 11 years since 2000, Asia’s chicken meat industry expanded by some 4.3 per cent annually compared with a global figure of less than four per cent. Consequently, Asia’s share of the world total increased from a little less than 32 per cent to a shade above 33 per cent, as output climbed from 18.7 million tonnes to 29.6 million tonnes. The upward trend has continued such that this year, chicken meat production in Asia will approach 31 million tonnes, while 2014 output will exceed this, just about maintaining its 33 per cent share of the forecast global total.

In 2011, nine Asian countries produced more than one million tonnes of chicken meat with a combined production of almost 24.5 million tonnes, representing over 82 per cent of the regional total. China alone, with an output estimated at 12.3 million tonnes, accounted for more than 41 per cent (Tables 2 and 3).

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The USDA makes estimates of broiler production for a number of countries in this region, the top eight are shown in Table 4 and Figure 2. In some instances. these figures are broadly in line with the FAO’s chicken meat estimates. However, China, India and Japan are significant exceptions, as the USDA figures point to larger production for China and India but much less in Iran.

Again, underlining the difficulties when in comparing data from different sources, it should be noted that the USDA production data only applies to mainland China, while the FAO figures include Hong Kong SAR, Macao SAR and Taiwan.

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China is easily the leading producer in the region and despite outbreaks of avian influenza and a weaker domestic demand, output, according to the USDA, is expected to top 14 million tonnes this year (Table 4).

The avian influenza outbreak proved extremely costly to the industry, causing the China Development Bank to issue emergency loans to poultry companies, while the central government announced subsidies to support poultry processors as live bird markets were closed and poultry demand slumped.

Nevertheless, according to a Rabobank report: "The poultry sector has great growth potential thanks to changing food preferences, a growing demand for quick-service restaurants and the emergence of the frozen processed food sector."

While vertical integrated production is increasing, the bulk of output continues to come from contract producers.

Based on USDA data, between 2000 and 2011 China’s industry has expanded by almost 3.3 per cent a year - compared with a little less than three per cent by FAO - and although it is anticipated that this rate will likely slow to 2.6 per cent in 2013, next year should push broiler output towards 14.5 million tonnes. However, based on FAO data, chicken output in 2014 will be closer to 13.5 million tonnes.




Figure 2. Leading broiler meat producers in Asia ('000 tonnes)

India’s chicken meat industry is one of the fastest growing in the world. Although the tonnage estimates by the USDA and FAO differ quite markedly, both sets of figures show a growth trend from 2000 to 2011 of around nine per cent a year. While, in keeping with other poultry industries around the world, India’s producers have had to adjust to much higher feed costs, domestic forecasters confidently predict growth to continue at between eight and 10 per cent a year, with the USDA putting this year’s broiler output at around 3.4 million tonnes.

The FAO/USDA figures on chicken/broiler meat output in Indonesia for the period 2000 to 2011 are almost identical. Since 2010, production growth has slumped from almost four per cent a year to less than one per cent for 2013 for which the USDA’s estimate stands at 1.6 million tonnes.

Broiler production in Malaysia has hardly increased since 2010 and currently is still short of the million tonnes a year mark. However, the FAO puts chicken meat output considerably higher at 1.4 million tonnes.

Although Japan is an important producer, annual output is flat at around 1.4 million tonnes.

After a human case of avian influenza in Taiwan, the authorities, in a move to limit contact between humans and chickens, imposed a ban (with a few exceptions) on the slaughter of poultry in the traditional 'wet' markets. Annual production has declined in recent years to around 550,000 tonnes.

The recovery in Thailand’s industry - evident since 2004 - looks likely to continue this year. Broiler output escalated from around 900,000 tonnes in 2004 to a record 1.55 million tonnes in 2012, while the latest USDA forecast for 2013 points to it nudging up to 1.56 million tonnes. (Table 4 and Figure 2).

Production in Turkey, while showing an overall medium-term growth of more than eight per cent a year since 2000, appears to have increased in spurts with large rises for one and sometimes two years, followed by a period of much slower growth. Hence, 2010 and 2011 witnessed gains of 14 per cent and 13 per cent, respectively, followed by an increase of less than five per cent in 2012, while for 2013, the USDA forecasts a rise of below one per cent at 1.7 million tonnes.

According to FAO data chicken meat output in Iran has risen by some seven per cent a year from 804,000 tonnes in 2000 to almost 1.7 million tonnes in 2011. This contrasts markedly with the USDA figures for broiler output showing an expansion of just 2.6 per cent a year from 540,000 tonnes to 820,000 tonnes in 2013.

September 2013

 

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