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nemo

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Mushroom production
« on: January 03, 2009, 08:47:17 PM »
Mushroom Culture
 
Introduction
 
The culture of mushroom is gaining popularity  in the Philippines. Mushroom is a delicacy and is really accepted as vegetable. Its present cultivation in this country is limited, perhaps due to insufficiency of planting materials and the limited local knowledge about its culture.
 
 Mushroom growing requires little space and time and farmers can make use of their rice straws following harvesting. Mushroom can be grown the whole year round provided a good storage of rice straw is prepared.
 
 This brochure illustrates the fundamental techniques involved in the culture of banana or rice straw type of mushroom, Volvariolla volvacoa.
 
The vegetable and Legume Crops Section of the Bureau of Plant Industry is now producing mushroom spawn in abundance.
 
Materials and Methods
 
 Dry rice straws and banana leaves are the most common types of bleeding materials. However, other materials like cotton wastes, jute sacks, corn stalks, water hyacinth, sugar baggasse and abaca waste materials may also be used for bedding materials.

 Sufficient water supply and soaking tank or any similar container are used. Plastic sheet of gauge No.6, empty cement bags and sacks are used to cover the beds.
 
Procedures
 
A. Gather long, clean and well dried rice straws and banana leaves, preferably those that are still standing in the field. Avoid using old and contaminated bedding materials.
B. Bundle the bedding materials 6-8 inches in diameter. If rice straws are used, arrange butt ends together.
 
     a) Cut the bundle materials 1.5 to 2 ft. long.
     b) Soak the bundled materials in water for at least 3 hours but not more than 10 hours until enough moisture is absorbed by the materials.
    c) Foundation as support for the bed.
    d) Set the soaked-bundled materials, closely knit the together, evenly and compactly.
    e) Water the bed well with the urea or ammonium sulfate at rate of 1-2 tbsp. per gallon of water. Add sugar at the rate of 33 grams per gallon of water to improve the yield of mushrooms.
    f) Press the layer to level of surface. Stop watering when the water starts to drip off the bed.
    g) Insert thumb-size prawns around the bed, four (4) inches from along the side and four (4) inches apart from each other. Never plant spawn at the middle of the bed.
    h) Set the second layer of straw on the top of the first layer. Put the butt ends together in two opposite direction. Water and press down.   
    Follow the same procedure until a six-layer bed is attained.
    i) Cover the entire bed with plastic sheet gauges No. 6 or cement bags or sacks for seven days after which it is removed.
 
Harvesting
 
The growth of mushrooms on the bed come in flushes. With adequate maintenance and care, the first flush usually comes and flushes from 13 to 15 days following seeding. When a flush is on watering must be avoided. Watering is resumed when the flush is over. Harvesting is done in the following manner:
 
1. Harvest the whole mushroom including the stump. Don�t leave any stump in the bed as this would rot and in rotting the adjacent mushroom may be affected.
2. As much as possible care must be taken not to disturb the small buttons.
3. Mushrooms in the button stage of growth are more succulent, hence they are better preferred than the fully opened ones.
4. Harvested mushroom may be placed in trays or in kaings.
 
Care in the Mushroom Bed
 
1. When the bed is made, it may be well to cover it with plastic sheet, gunny sack or any suitable materials to protect it from the drying effect of the wind and to keep it humid.
2. After the removal of the plastic sheet don�t water the bed as the bed is still wet.
3. Watering should be done only in amounts, which would keep the surface moist and its environs humid.
4. Watering may be done using a sprinkler, passing same over the bed and along the sides. Avoid soaking the bed as this condition is equally harmful to the proper development of the mushrooms as insufficient watering.
5. When the mushroom buttons start to form, water must be stopped until the flush is over.
6. Resume watering when the flush is over to coax another flush to come.
 
Source:bpi.da.gov.ph

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jonie_davao

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Re: Mushroom production
« Reply #1 on: August 31, 2009, 12:53:54 PM »
Hi Doc,
Napaka-interesting talaga nitong MUSHROOM FARMING!!!  :) If only I am fully equipped (capital and knowledge)!!!
I have downloaded several videos thru "rapidshare". Am I allowed to post the links?  ???

Thanks,
Jonie


nemo

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Re: Mushroom production
« Reply #2 on: September 01, 2009, 09:27:18 PM »
Sure, please do post, for the benefit of all...

Thank you
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nemo

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Re: Mushroom production
« Reply #3 on: October 26, 2009, 06:27:06 PM »
check your mail.


Thank you for the link.
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nemo

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Re: Mushroom production
« Reply #4 on: October 26, 2009, 06:34:31 PM »
I have downloaded the ebook.... ;D ;D ;D

This mushroom is hallucinogenic ... bawal ang production nito sa ibang bansa although not sure if ipinagbabawal din sa atin ito.

COnsidered as illegal drugs ito.  But the procedure could be use for raising other mushroom.
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freddierick_06@yahoo.com

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Re: Mushroom production
« Reply #5 on: August 05, 2010, 10:27:59 AM »
eow can u plz tell d procedure on how to cultivate oyster mushroom
,naumpishan ko n po ang pagawa,,
,

nemo

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Re: Mushroom production
« Reply #6 on: August 06, 2010, 06:28:40 PM »
i do not have an article about oyster mushroom but you could read these nalang for added info about mushroom production

The budding business of mushroom

By: Jesse John Edep

How mushroom technology function in Rizal Technology University’s laboratory and underground passageways.

The mushroom business in the Philippines is apparently a burgeoning business with enormous commercial potential in as much as it targets a basic need: food. There is also a claim, on the contrary, that its present cultivation in this country is limited, perhaps due to the limited local knowledge about its culture.

But at the heart of the Manila metropolis in Boni avenue is a dynamic and bracing research center of Rizal  Technological University that is tanning and developing mushrooms in underground passageways. These channels are valued historically where they were used by World War II soldiers to transport themselves inconspicuously to and from adjoining towns from their attack or defense or simply to escape from enemy troops.

Finding the tunnels apposite for other purposes has given them modern-day worth. The tunnels are regarded to impact positively and directly to the local mushroom industry.

Cultured inside the adobe-made tunnels are edible mushrooms species that grow in semi-temperate areas like Pleurotus sp. (oyster or abalone mushrooms) Auricularia sp. (ear fungi), agaricus bisporus (tropical white button mushrooms, and lentinus edodes (shiitake or brown or black Japanese mushrooms).

Morever, the culture of medicinal mushrooms is gaining its popularity abroad. That is why the research center is now starting to cultivate mushrooms which have therapeutic applications-like the Ganoderma lucidum- to parallel our innovation with those in foreign lands,” says  Angelita Medalla, a university’s faculty researcher and mushroom specialist.

 

The biology

Mushrooms are fungi characterized by the presence of gills under the umbrella-shaped cap called pileus. Some have the presence rings; others have none. Some row in mass or in clusters; others develop in singels or in pairs. Others thrive well on cool weather, some in warm places.

Like plants, mushrooms have seeds responsible for propagating species. They produce spores like all fungi. These spores  are very diminutive and microscopic that they disperse and disseminate through the air with the wind. When they happen to fall on a suitable agricultural waste, these spores germinate and develop into mycelium. IF the conditions are favorable, it continues to grow, ramify and develop into mushrooms.

 

Why grow mushrooms?

Medalla stresses that edible mushrooms are good sources of high-quality protein. “They can be produced with greater biological efficiency and have an important role in elevating the diet of people enduring from protein deficiency , “ she says, adding that they can represent a source of high-value metabolites like anti-tumor or cancer agents.

There is also a reason that one of the most cost-effectively practical processes for bioconversion of agricultural and industrial lingo cellulosic wastes is the cultivation of edible mushroom. “This is extremely important in rural areas where there are available large quantities of agricultural  wastes ideally suited for growing different types of edible mushrooms,,” Medalla exemplifies.

Furtheremore, the substrate (or agricultural waste) residues that are left after harvesting mushrooms can be converted into feedstock to ruminants and used as soil conditioners. Medalla articulates they can help increase the income in the rural and urban area, improving the social status of unemployed people.

Economics  of cultivation

Mushroom cultivation is an income-generating activity that can be done both in rural and urban areas. Mushrooms can be grown on commercial or small scale using either highly urbane equipment or low-cost materials and agricultural wastes.

The choice of species and technology , according to Medalla, will depend on the conditions prevailing in the place where one prefers to grow the mushrooms, the availability of the substrate to be used and the availability and amount of capital.

Medalla suggests  that mushroom growing can be made doable in a cooperative where division of labor can be adroitly practiced. “There is a group that can be engaged in spawn production, substrate preparation, planting or inoculation, fruiting, harvesting, processing and marketing aspects,” she says.

Mushrooms production is complicated business. It involves a number of complicated steps and operations like the pure culture preparation (the selection of the acceptable fruiting culture of the mushroom); the planting material  preparation; the substrate preparation where mushrooms will be grown; the actual planting or the inoculation of the substrate; and the  harvesting, processing and marketing.

The technology

Each operation, according to Medalla, consists of many sequential steps that are crucial and important if success is to be achieved. Despite the electricity fluctuation in the university when MARID  visited the university  when for two days, she shared how mushroom technology functions in their laborator and underground passageways:

Propagation of pure culture

During the preparation of the culture media, peel and weigh the 200 grams of fresh, hale and hearty potatoes. Dice these potatoes to about two centimeter cubes. Boil one liter distilled water and add these diced potatoes . Let them simmer for ten minutes or until they are soft enough to be eaten. Strain off these diced potato through cheesecloth, and restore the volume of the potato decoction (broth) tone liter by simply adding distilled water. Bring the potato decoction to boil and add 20 grams of agar. Stir the mixture until the agar dissolves. Add 20 grams of dextrose powder and stir until it also dissolves.

Pour and distribute 40 to 50 milliliters of the mixture into empty bottles. Plug the mouth of the bottles with cotton, cover with paper and tie with rubber band. Sterilize them in pressure cooker at 15 pounds for 15 to 20 minutes, and allow the pressure to drop down to zero pounds per  square inch. Take  out the sterilized culture media and slant the culture media bottles.

Then isolate the pure culture using the tissue culture. This method is done through selecting a young and healthy mushroom that is disinfected with 70% alcohol by rubbing a cotton swab. With a sterilized scalpel, cut approximately one centimeter cube f the tissue and plant on the slanted agar with the use of sterilized forceps or scalpel. Incubate at room temperature for 10 to 14 days or until the media is fully impregnated with the mycelia.

Production of the spawn

Wash thoroughly the grains in tap water. Transfer in clean casserole, and add water till one inch above the level of grains. Boil until the grains are about to burst. Cool the grains by spreading in a nylon cloth or line screen and allow the water to drain off leaving the grains just damp (65 to 70% moisture).  Distribute grains equally in bottles, plug with cotton and cover them with paper or foil and support them with rubber band. Sterilize at 15 pounds for an hour. Cool the bottles at room temperature; aseptically inoculate with young and vigorous culture of the mushroom mold. Incubate at room temperature until the grains are fully impregnated with the mushroom molds.

Production of the fruiting bags (growing method)

At the preparation of the composted sawdust medium, mix thoroughly the composted sawdust medium composed of 78% sawdust, 20% class A rice bran, one percent calcium carbonate or lime and a percent of washed sugar. Add tap water until the mixture attains 65-70 % moisture, which is determined by pressing a handful of mixture in the hand and no water should run off in between fingers and materials should stay in form after releasing the pressure.

Pile the substrate or mixture in a pyramidal form. Cover with plastic sheet for a period of five days with turning every after two days, repiling and returning the plastic cover again. On the fifth day or after the second turning, aearate the piled materials by spreading thinly in a shaded area to remove the toxic gases that may have been produced during the period of composting. After the acidic smell has gone, check and adjust the moisture content making sure that it is 65 to 70%.

Pack the substrate in not-soloose-or-not-so-compact bag. Collect the upper part of the bag and pass it through a plastic ring, and pull the plastic ring down thus making the mouth of the bag. Plug each bag with cotton, cover it with paper, and tie with rubber band. Sterilize 15 pounds for an hour and a half, or the bags may be subjected to steaming depends on the load of the container.

To propagate the mushrooms, transfer the sterilized and cooled bags inside the inoculation room, which has been previously disinfected. Aseptically inoculate each bag with the mother spawn. Transfer the spawned bags in the incubation house, and incubate at 25-28 degrees celcius for a month or until fully impregnated with the mushroom mold.

Once the bags are fully ramified, allow them to undergo maturation period by extending incubation by another month. The matured bags are then ready to open. Open the bags carefully by cutting the plastic below the neck, and water them abundantly but carefully. The floor and the walls of the house should also be watered.

On the third day, pinheads or primordial will develop. In this case, do not water the bags but the walls and the floor.  Harvest period is expected on the fourth and fifth day and harvesting goes for two to three days. After fruiting, the bags should rest for five to seven days. During rest period, monitor the temperature (25 to 28 degrees Celsius), relative humidity (85 to 90%) and moisture (65 to 70%) . After each rest period, normal flushing or fruiting will follow and the cycle is repeated. The complete fruiting cycle lasts fro two to three months.

source: MARID agribusiness, February 2007
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kentot

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Re: Mushroom production
« Reply #7 on: January 30, 2012, 09:56:49 AM »
Here Doc,




file not found na yong link, pls re-up


google adsense is asking to remove the link
« Last Edit: June 12, 2016, 06:10:29 PM by nemo »

 

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