Philippine Goat News:

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mikey:
Raising Goats(Part 2)
Part 2 of a practical guide to raising goats in the Philippines.

Although costs are unaffordable to some ordinary farmers, Vincent Garcia, AC Garcia Corp.’s managing director said in a recent MARID Agribusiness Digest interview, “It’s still a good investment.” Goats, especially boers, have superior potential to become a high-generating business in the future. Boer bucks could sire native females, where better offsprings, if fathered by a native male goat, could be produced. He also predicted that commercial goat raising would become a billion-peso industry in the years to come, which in turn, will cause relevant employment opportunities.

In this light, integrated goat managements have been conducted all over the country to fulfill this objective. Farmers continue to discover the improved competence in raising goats.

Goat feeding
Goats, like other livestock, require proper nutrition. Although not as critical, they need proper doses of water, vitamins, minerals, fats, carbohydrates and protein to survive. Goats have bacteria and protozoa in their rumen, which enable them to manufacture nutrients from such as feeds as hay-soilage, silage and other feedstuffs. Paragrass, stargrass, napier grass and centrosema grass are few of the many tropical grasses and legumes that goats indulge in.

As ruminants, goats also have a feeding program that should be based on the type and quality of roughage available, which determines both the quality and amount of concentrates needed to supplement their diet.

To lower the cost of feeding and maintenance, the herd should be pastured more often than usual and must be provided with sufficient space for grazing. If the herd must be moved from another pasture to another, make sure it’s been grazed for some time, to keep a pasture from being polluted or heavily infested by parasites. Breeding goats, on the other hand, can survive on pasture feeds.

Though a little picky in grazing, goats enjoy feeding on a large variety of plants. Bush land, together with the common pasture grasses, make a good combination. Remember that they eat only what’s suitable for them so do not feed them weeds. Also, keep the goats in the barn when it’s raining. If the weather is humid and cold, provide them with cheap grain feeds like rice bran.

Confined goats, especially those who are lactating, should be provided with good amount of forage, vitamin-mineral and salt.

Pregnant dry does should be adequately fed as well, with quality feeds to stock them with reserves for lactation and to nourish their fetuses. They should also be provided with abundant amount of forage and roughage, vitamin-mineral plus concentrates depending on their body condition.

The young goats, four months old and above, must be fed properly for maintenance and continuous growth. A good supply of food generally is made up of quality forage and roughage plus half a kilo of concentrates daily.

Bucks should also be maintained on good pasture when not breeding. Provide them with enough supply of vitamin-mineral mix, water and about half a kilo of concentrates two weeks before and during the breeding season.

Pasture grasses and roughages
Among the concentrates, corn grains are the most advisable for goats, with its 84.2% of total digestible nutrients (TDN). Corn gluten feed has 74.9%; copra meal has 78.5%; rice bran (cono) has 69.1%; wheat pollard has 73.1%; soybean oil meal has 76%; cane molasses has 53% and corn bran has 71.1% TDN.

Green roughages, which include napier grass, contain a good amount of crude protein as well, making it recommendable for these animals. Paragrass and guinea grass that vary on TDN contents during wet and dry seasons are also advisable. Tree leaves and browse plants you can provide your herd also include: acacia, bamboo, gumamela, camachile, caimito, santan, ipil-ipil, kakawati and banana.

Feeding programs also depend on the type and quality of roughage available, and the age of the goats.

The herd also needs clean water and salt that must be provided to them 3 to 5 times a day. A watering trough in the pen where goats can drink any time of the day could come in very handy. Salt is also important for them to sustain a good appetite, so a mineralized salt block which the animals can lick whenever they want will really help.

Housing the herd
Like other herds, goats require a few provisions. First and foremost, remember that goat houses’ primary objective is to provide the animals shelter, so make sure it prevents rain and wetness from coming in. Goats, after all, are very prone to pneumonia. They also like elevated platforms that take a form of stairs. Their shelter and feeding racks must be well-ventilated and drained, and easy to clean. Make it a point that it’s also accessible not only to the animals, but to the caretaker as well. It’ll help if you provide abundant flooring elevation of up to 15 degrees to facilitate proper cleaning and drainage.

Flooring for does, bucks and adults range from .75 to 1.50 square meters and 15.24 to 25.40 linear centimeters for their feeding space. Growing goats require .50 to .75 square meters of flooring space and 10.16 to 15.24 linear centimeters feeding space, while kids require just half as much.

Ventilation is also important, so allow one (1) foot clearance between floor to wall and wall to beam to provide adequate air circulation. Maintaining an interior temperature of not more than 30°C but not less than 27°C is advised. Goats consume up to 30% of the day’s intake during night time so lighting should also be provided in the barns during night.

When it comes to building fences, make sure to keep the place water-tight to keep the goats in. If the barn isn’t overcrowded, goats are usually respectful of fences. You run into problems when the other side of the fence looks better to eat than what you have inside it. The bigger problem is keeping them from getting stuck in the fence. A hot wire about a foot or 18 inches long off the ground 8-12 inches inside the fence might be effective in keeping the goats from sticking their head through the fence or rubbing on it.

For fence sections that will separate rutting bucks from one another or from does in heat, two hot wires will help-one a foot to i8 inches of the ground, and the other about a foot above the first on both sides. This prevents the bucks from damaging the fence in those areas.

Many properties use 4 to 5 strands of barbed wires to fence their herds. By using those as ground wires and adding steel high tensile connected to a charger between them mounted to insulator posts, this type of fence will both be economical and functional. Do not use aluminum wire as it tends to stretch and sag and be easily broken.

Age Feeds
3 days and below Colostrums
4 days to 2 weeks Whole milk(goat/cow’s milk) Vitamin-mineral Water
2 to 16 weeks Whole milk or mil replacer Grass-legumes hay or
quality fresh forage Vitamin-mineral mixWaterStarter
4 months - kidding Forage, vitamin-mineral mixWaterConcentrates
Dry, Pregnant Bucks Forage, vitamin-mineral mixWaterConcentrates
Lactating Forage, vitamin-mineral mixWaterConcentrates

To be continued…

mikey:
Raising Goats(Part 3)
Part 3 of a practical guide to raising goats in the Philippines.

Keeping the herd healthy
Sanitation plays a vital role in keeping your goat healthy and in perfect shape. Make sure you do the following: clean the pens daily and wash it at least three times a week; disinfect at least twice a month; provide a pit or lagoon to store the goats’ accumulated feces and urine to prevent giving disease-causing micro-organisms a breeding ground; provide separate pens for diseased goats; and train your personnel to observe proper sanitation processes and methods. It’s also advised to limit visitor animals in the farm, and quarantine newly-arrived stocks for at least a month before mixing them with the rest of the herd.

High mortality rate of goats are also attributed to parasites. Next to pnemnonia, parasites rank Number 2 on the top goat killers list. Some of them are tapeworms, protozoa-like coccidian and amoeba. To prevent this, have your goats checked regularly for worm loads and schedule them for regular deworming. But before doing so, distinguish what parasite you’re dealing first.

The rainy season, most especially, is the peak season of diseases for livestock, most notable of which is parasite infection. Worms consider the wet season the best time to infect your livestock.

However, use of anthelmintics, though risky, will help. Without proper and prior knowledge about its use can lead to parasite resistance development. Thus, to minimize expenses and achieve the best results, carefully plan the deworming processes.

Lice and ticks can also be a problem. If this happens, mix powder-form chemicals with 7-10 parts of starch or flour, or apply acaricide against the parasites. Never use the liquid or spray form chemicals.

Effective worm control Dewormers may be given once or twice only a year for goats that have been completely confined for a year or during the rainy season only. However, strategic deworming applies to goats that are stalled on wet months but were allowed to freely graze on the pasture when the grasses are dry or 1-2 days after the rain had stopped.

Animals that have been given their first deworming dose a month before the rainy season, with the second dose given at the peak of the rainy months. Though optional, three doses, too, are usually enough for two years.

These strategies work best with a holistic approach to worm control which includes the following: providing the herd with a proper pen, accompanying them with tree leaves and shrubs that’ll ensure better nutrition and minimize parasitism, and delaying grazing for partially confined animals until the sun has totally dried the grasses.

Other management practices
Aside from the abovementioned, there are few management procedures one must do to properly manage the herd. Experts advice goat raisers to disinfect their pens at least twice a month.

Identifying your herd.
To denote ownership of the goats, one must identify his herd. Due to its legal significance, branding with hot iron comes as first choice to some. Branding your goats helps in keeping a record of your animals. Tattooing or ear notching, though may be a little costly, are also two of the most common practices to properly identify your herd. Never use plastic tags- goats can easily destroy them.

Castration.
Castration of unwanted male goats should take place within the first month of age, where their testicles at the time are still undeveloped. It is during this time that there’ll be less stress and bleeding. Castration is done for males for them to grow faster.

Dehorning.
Dehorning your goats is also critical, especially in milking herds. Aside from making them more docile, dehorning helps lessen wounds during goat fights. Dehorn (luring the first two to four months using hot iron cautery.

Hoove trimming.
Same goes with trimming goats’ hooves. Use a rose pruner and a small curved knife to cut excess hooves. If left untrimmed, the hooves might cause lameness and make your herd prone to foot rot.

Keeping records.
Keeping individual records of your herd will provide you a good breeding herd program. They’re practically useful in management decisions that include proper selection of who and who not to breed. Keep a record with the following information: goat name, sire, dam, sex, method of disposal, date of birth, birth-weight, color, littermates, weight at disposal, as well as breeding information like date of breeding, date of kidding, lactation days and others.

Producing good breeds
Female goats reach puberty in 4 to 18 months but breeding is best done during its first 10 to 12 months, given their desirable weight. Does are in heat with the following signs: if mucus starts discharging from their vulva, matting the hair in their tails; if they stay near bucks and willingly let them mount them; and if they constantly urinate, feel uneasy and have lost their appetite.

It is advised by experts to keep the ratio of bucks to does in 1:25, thus limiting yearling bucks to 25 does a year. However, older bucks can cover up to 75 doe services.

In the beginning, introduce the doe to the buck and not to the doe herd. It will be dangerous to mix bucks with a herd of pregnant does for they might breed indiscriminately. Does’ failure to come in heat is another problem that you might encounter. This can be caused by mineral, vitamin and other nutrient deficiencies, infection of the genital tract and other hormone deficiencies.

Although, also check your buck’s health condition before breeding, especially their genitor-urinary tract. Preputial scraping, blood and sperm tests are also some useful procedures that can help you to better manage your bucks. Always consult a vet before during these tests.

Free mating may cause breeding of immature females that could impede their growth, shrink their vigor and produce offsprings of low birth, weaning and mature weights. Control in breeding can also reduce chances of parasitism in your herd and increase profits. A new technology option-which others call `controlled mating’adopts a change in the management of free-grazed goats.

Mating can be done during April to December, where kidding will fall towards the end of the rainy season the year after. Proper timing is everything.

Embryo technology and artificial insemination
Though not yet as common as other breeding techniques in the country, Embryo Technology contributes to a faster pace of genetic improvement and more reasonable costs. All one needs is to surgically transfer the embryo of a boer, even to native goats. The developed fetus of the boer will not inherit whatever traits the host goat has, but instead preserve the integrity of the boer quality.

Artificial Insemination (AI), another breeding procedure used even to humans is done by collecting semen and then introducing it into the uterus with sexual interaction. It is used in animals to propagate desirable characteristics of one male to many females or overcome breeding problems, particularly in the cases of animals such as pigs, dogs, horses, cattle and even honeybees. Process includes collecting the Semen, extending, and then cooling or freezing it. It can then be used on site or shipped to the female’s location through a small plastic tube holding the frozen semen referred to as a “straw”. For the sperm to remain viable before and after it is frozen, the semen is then mixed with a solution containing either glycerol or other cryoprotectants. A solution that allows the semen from a donor to impregnate more females by making insemination possible with fewer sperm is then used. Antibiotics like streptomycin are sometimes added to the sperm to control some venereal diseases that the offspring might inherit if the insemination is successful.

One must follow the following guidelines to ensure successful breeding procedure: Since goat semen is very sensitive, always keep it warm. If a heated facility is unavailable, use a heating pad or hot water to keep the semen and other related equipment at proper temperature. Deposit the semen deep intracervically and very slowly. Rapid expulsion can damage sperm cells and cause irritation of the doe’s reproductive tract. Most inseminators agree that conception is most successful when breeding is done during the later third of standing heat. For best results, inseminate does that have regular recurring heats and no history of breeding or kidding problems. Never attempt to inseminate a doe on her first heat cycle of the season.

Also, keep a detailed record of your At breedings, noting factors like color, consistency of cervical mucus, difficulties in cervical penetration and other important information.

To be continued…

mikey:
Raising Goats(Part 3)
Part 3 of a practical guide to raising goats in the Philippines.

Keeping the herd healthy
Sanitation plays a vital role in keeping your goat healthy and in perfect shape. Make sure you do the following: clean the pens daily and wash it at least three times a week; disinfect at least twice a month; provide a pit or lagoon to store the goats’ accumulated feces and urine to prevent giving disease-causing micro-organisms a breeding ground; provide separate pens for diseased goats; and train your personnel to observe proper sanitation processes and methods. It’s also advised to limit visitor animals in the farm, and quarantine newly-arrived stocks for at least a month before mixing them with the rest of the herd.

High mortality rate of goats are also attributed to parasites. Next to pnemnonia, parasites rank Number 2 on the top goat killers list. Some of them are tapeworms, protozoa-like coccidian and amoeba. To prevent this, have your goats checked regularly for worm loads and schedule them for regular deworming. But before doing so, distinguish what parasite you’re dealing first.

The rainy season, most especially, is the peak season of diseases for livestock, most notable of which is parasite infection. Worms consider the wet season the best time to infect your livestock.

However, use of anthelmintics, though risky, will help. Without proper and prior knowledge about its use can lead to parasite resistance development. Thus, to minimize expenses and achieve the best results, carefully plan the deworming processes.

Lice and ticks can also be a problem. If this happens, mix powder-form chemicals with 7-10 parts of starch or flour, or apply acaricide against the parasites. Never use the liquid or spray form chemicals.

Effective worm control Dewormers may be given once or twice only a year for goats that have been completely confined for a year or during the rainy season only. However, strategic deworming applies to goats that are stalled on wet months but were allowed to freely graze on the pasture when the grasses are dry or 1-2 days after the rain had stopped.

Animals that have been given their first deworming dose a month before the rainy season, with the second dose given at the peak of the rainy months. Though optional, three doses, too, are usually enough for two years.

These strategies work best with a holistic approach to worm control which includes the following: providing the herd with a proper pen, accompanying them with tree leaves and shrubs that’ll ensure better nutrition and minimize parasitism, and delaying grazing for partially confined animals until the sun has totally dried the grasses.

Other management practices
Aside from the abovementioned, there are few management procedures one must do to properly manage the herd. Experts advice goat raisers to disinfect their pens at least twice a month.

Identifying your herd.
To denote ownership of the goats, one must identify his herd. Due to its legal significance, branding with hot iron comes as first choice to some. Branding your goats helps in keeping a record of your animals. Tattooing or ear notching, though may be a little costly, are also two of the most common practices to properly identify your herd. Never use plastic tags- goats can easily destroy them.

Castration.
Castration of unwanted male goats should take place within the first month of age, where their testicles at the time are still undeveloped. It is during this time that there’ll be less stress and bleeding. Castration is done for males for them to grow faster.

Dehorning.
Dehorning your goats is also critical, especially in milking herds. Aside from making them more docile, dehorning helps lessen wounds during goat fights. Dehorn (luring the first two to four months using hot iron cautery.

Hoove trimming.
Same goes with trimming goats’ hooves. Use a rose pruner and a small curved knife to cut excess hooves. If left untrimmed, the hooves might cause lameness and make your herd prone to foot rot.

Keeping records.
Keeping individual records of your herd will provide you a good breeding herd program. They’re practically useful in management decisions that include proper selection of who and who not to breed. Keep a record with the following information: goat name, sire, dam, sex, method of disposal, date of birth, birth-weight, color, littermates, weight at disposal, as well as breeding information like date of breeding, date of kidding, lactation days and others.

Producing good breeds
Female goats reach puberty in 4 to 18 months but breeding is best done during its first 10 to 12 months, given their desirable weight. Does are in heat with the following signs: if mucus starts discharging from their vulva, matting the hair in their tails; if they stay near bucks and willingly let them mount them; and if they constantly urinate, feel uneasy and have lost their appetite.

It is advised by experts to keep the ratio of bucks to does in 1:25, thus limiting yearling bucks to 25 does a year. However, older bucks can cover up to 75 doe services.

In the beginning, introduce the doe to the buck and not to the doe herd. It will be dangerous to mix bucks with a herd of pregnant does for they might breed indiscriminately. Does’ failure to come in heat is another problem that you might encounter. This can be caused by mineral, vitamin and other nutrient deficiencies, infection of the genital tract and other hormone deficiencies.

Although, also check your buck’s health condition before breeding, especially their genitor-urinary tract. Preputial scraping, blood and sperm tests are also some useful procedures that can help you to better manage your bucks. Always consult a vet before during these tests.

Free mating may cause breeding of immature females that could impede their growth, shrink their vigor and produce offsprings of low birth, weaning and mature weights. Control in breeding can also reduce chances of parasitism in your herd and increase profits. A new technology option-which others call `controlled mating’adopts a change in the management of free-grazed goats.

Mating can be done during April to December, where kidding will fall towards the end of the rainy season the year after. Proper timing is everything.

Embryo technology and artificial insemination
Though not yet as common as other breeding techniques in the country, Embryo Technology contributes to a faster pace of genetic improvement and more reasonable costs. All one needs is to surgically transfer the embryo of a boer, even to native goats. The developed fetus of the boer will not inherit whatever traits the host goat has, but instead preserve the integrity of the boer quality.

Artificial Insemination (AI), another breeding procedure used even to humans is done by collecting semen and then introducing it into the uterus with sexual interaction. It is used in animals to propagate desirable characteristics of one male to many females or overcome breeding problems, particularly in the cases of animals such as pigs, dogs, horses, cattle and even honeybees. Process includes collecting the Semen, extending, and then cooling or freezing it. It can then be used on site or shipped to the female’s location through a small plastic tube holding the frozen semen referred to as a “straw”. For the sperm to remain viable before and after it is frozen, the semen is then mixed with a solution containing either glycerol or other cryoprotectants. A solution that allows the semen from a donor to impregnate more females by making insemination possible with fewer sperm is then used. Antibiotics like streptomycin are sometimes added to the sperm to control some venereal diseases that the offspring might inherit if the insemination is successful.

One must follow the following guidelines to ensure successful breeding procedure: Since goat semen is very sensitive, always keep it warm. If a heated facility is unavailable, use a heating pad or hot water to keep the semen and other related equipment at proper temperature. Deposit the semen deep intracervically and very slowly. Rapid expulsion can damage sperm cells and cause irritation of the doe’s reproductive tract. Most inseminators agree that conception is most successful when breeding is done during the later third of standing heat. For best results, inseminate does that have regular recurring heats and no history of breeding or kidding problems. Never attempt to inseminate a doe on her first heat cycle of the season.

Also, keep a detailed record of your At breedings, noting factors like color, consistency of cervical mucus, difficulties in cervical penetration and other important information.

To be continued…

mikey:
Raising Goats (Conclusion)
Last part of a practical guide to raising goats in the Philippines.

After delivery
Remember to wipe the mouth, body and nose of the newborn using a dry cloth. Massage its thoraric area to initiate proper breathing immediately. The mother normally does this for you but most mothers would be too weak after delivery. Difficulty in delivery, often called dystocia, is one common case encountered during birth. Before attempting to pull out the kid, make sure the presentation is right-both legs and head are presented in posterior position. A practicing vet should be present in difficult cases.

Newborns must be able to stick an hour after birth. Colostrums will do for those who can’t. First time mothers are often reluctant to suckle their young so restraining them could help. Those who are weaned early can go back to being in heat after i to 2 months.

Milking and proper caring
If conception and breeding is successful, milk production drops after one month and the abdomen’s right side will start to fill up. You must be able to establish a strict milking period for your herd, say twice a day, which must not be advanced or delayed from the exact time. Goats can and might withhold milk, so, routine changes should be avoided. On the other hand, mill: letdown can be set off by washing the udder with lukewarm water and wiping it with a clean towel. Make sure to clean all milking utensils.

Stop milking a pregnant doe at least a month before kidding date. This will give her enough for proper lactation after birth. Put the does in one separate pen and separate them one week before kidding dates. To avoid any difficulty that might occur, help the pregnant doe during kidding.

Common goat diseases
Aside from parasites, look out for a few diseases you must protect your goats from. Some of them are:

Anthrax - Anthrax infection is rare in humans though it occurs very occasionally in ruminants such as goats, antelopes and cattles. It is an acute infectious disease caused by the bacteria Bacillus anthracis and is typically deadly in some forms. Anthrax most commonly occurs in wild and domestic ruminants, but it can also occur in humans when they are exposed to infected animals or the slightest tissue from animals that have been infected. The infection of ruminants proceeds as follows: the spore is located and engulfed by phagocytes of the immune system. The spore turns into a bacillus, multiplies, and eventually bursts the cell, releasing bacilli into the bloodstream. There they release lethal toxin and edema which are known to target many distinct cells and tissue types. Characterized by sudden fever, loss of appetite, swelling of chest, head, belly and legs and even sudden death; caused by direct ingestion of infected material, like eating flies and indirect contact with other carriers.

Bacterial pneumonia - Symptoms include high fever, coughing and other respiratory distress that might lead to gradual emaciation and even death. Respond with antibiotic on early cases, clean the infected environment. Antibiotics are the treatment of choice for bacterial pneumonia, depending on the nature of the pneumonia, the microorganisms most commonly causing pneumonia in the geographical region, and the immune status and underlying health of the individual.

Bloat - Also known as torsion, gastric torsion, and gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV) is a medical condition in which the stomach becomes becomes overstretched by excessive gas content. Bloat becomes fatal within a matter of minutes. Treatment usually involves resuscitation with intravenous fluid therapy and emergency surgery. The stomach is initially decompressed by passing a stomach tube, or if that is not possible, multiple trocars can be passed through the skin into the stomach to remove the gas.

This is caused by eating copped green grasses, feeding whole, chopped or pellet grasses or inability of the animal to eructate usually with systemic disease or due to foreign bodies and abscesses, inflaminatory swelling, enlarged thoratic nodes and also dysfunction such as athropy of the muscles.

Contagious ecthyma/ORF - Caused by contamination in feces, manure, feeds, bedding or equipment. It is also known as contagious pustular dermatitis, sore month, contagious ecthyma, and scabby mouth. ORF virus can also infect humans, through direct contact or formites. It is characterized by scabs and mucus in the skin of the face, genitalia, feet, month, ears, gums, tongue, palate and other parts of the body. Proper vaccination will prevent further cases. Symptoms also include papules or pustules on the lips and muzzle, and less commonly in the mouth of young goats and on the eyelids, and feet. The lesions progress to thick crusts which may bleed. Orf in the mouths may prevent suckling and cause weight loss. A live virus vaccine is made from scab material and usually given to ewes at the age of two months, but only to goats, during an outbreak.

Hemorrhagic septicemia - Normally present in the nasopharyngeal area and caused by ingestion of inhalation of infective agents. Symptoms include swelling of the throat ad brisket congestion of mucus membrane. Prevent with parenteral antibiotics and sulfa drugs. The therapy rests on antibiotics, surgical drainage of infected fluid collections, fluid replacement and appropriate support for organ dysfunction. Ensuring adequate nutrition, if necessarv bv parenteral nutrition, is important during prolonged illness.

Infectious arthritis - Characterized by swollen knees, lameness and pain in the joints-hock, elbow and knees-of the animal. It should be suspected when one joint is affected and the goat is feverish. In seeding arthritis, several joints can be affected simultaneously; this is especially the case when the infection is caused by staphylococcus or gonococcus bacteria. Minimize infection by treating the wound with and proper hygiene management in infected areas. Antibiotic and sulfa drugs might help.

Mastitis - This is often referred to as the inflammation of the mammalian breast. It is called puerperal mastitis when it occurs to lactating mothers. Caused by the blocking of the mill: ducts while the mother is breastfeeding. It can cause painful areas on the breasts or nipples and may very well lead to fever of flu. Except in heavy cases it is not necessary to wean them because of mastitis; in fact, nursing is the most effective way to remove the blockage and alleviate the symptoms, and is not harmful to the baby. Sudden weaning can cause or exacerbate mastitis symptoms. When milk starts being bloodstained and fever, loss of appetite, depression and dehydration can be observed, start intramammary infusion of antibiotics. Early and repeated treatments must be applied to prevent further complications.

Tetanus - The wound must be cleaned; dead and infected tissue should be removed. To decrease the bacteria, you can use metroninazole. Penicillin, too has been used to treat tetanus, All tetanus victims should be vaccinated against tetanus or offered a booster vaccine if they have been previously vaccinated. Treat wounds with hydrogen peroxide until completely healed using clean instruments in castration and dehorning. Might be caused by direct infections from microorganisms in their wounds.

Marketing the herd
PCARRD and the Livestock Development Council (LDC) of the Department of Agriculture (DA) recently held a forum on the “Competitiveness of goat marketing system in the Philippines, where strategies for breeders, slaughter animals, and milking animals, addresses the marketing-related issues and proposed possible interventions were discussed. Participants saw the need to establish a Goat Marketing Board (GMB) that would address issues such as variations in prices, quality, and standards, as well as seasonality of demand. Moreover, to standardize the marketing system, some proponents spoke of putting in place a breed registry to curb the lack of accredited breeder farms.

mikey:
Adding Value to Traditional Goat Products (Conclusion)
More and more goat raisers are taking the road less travelled and are discovering value-added goat products.

The surging interest in goat as an investment area for livelihood and enterprise among business is booming for both the small and the commercial scale goat raisers. Indeed, they have become unbelievably even as the surging investments in goats for livelihood and enterprise has OFWs, government retirees, balikbayans, livelihood programs of government and NGOs interested in the money-making venture.

Much of what is being said about goat production today is how to produce slaughter and breeder goats efficiently and profitably. But unknown to many traditional players in the industry, there are a few who dared the odds and won. These determined individuals went beyond conventional methods and took the paths less traveled. They ventured into goat dairy, production of personal care products from goat milk, certification of a Halal slaughter house and processing chevon into a certified exportable Halal product.

Elmer Rivera. Another dedicated milk man is Elmer Rivera, 33, owner of St Elmo’s Goat Farm and President of Region 4 Small Ruminant Raisers Association. He started the business three years ago when everybody had gone gaga over owning a Boer as the imported goat breed for modern day Filipino goat raisers.

Never a blind follower, Elmer decided to use instead the Anglo Nubian breed and its crosses (Native x Anglo Nubian) and resolved to stake out a niche in the growing market for goat products. Just like the Almedas, he focused on goat dairy to be different from the expanding number of players in the goat industry.

His farm is in Nasugbu, Batangas while his markets for fresh milk, choco milk, cheese, yoghurt and soap are in Tagaytay city, selected retail outlets and weekend markets. He has also regular customers like Ms. Yolly Raca of KALPANA, who purchases goat milk and processes it to vanity products such as soap, creams/ lotion (whitening and moisturizing) and even exfoliants.

Because his farm is small, this jolly, typically hard working Batangueno, and certified eligible bachelor, gathers forages from vacant areas near his farm to supplement and sustain the daily feed requirements of his dairy animals. He maximizes the use of his farm by growing a combination of improved grasses and tree legumes, very ideal for dairy production.

Managing the dairy farm is a dawn to dusk commitment of Elmer. He believes that every drop and squirt of his daily milk collection of around 30 to 40 kg really counts financially in this unique business of goat dairying. Because of increasing demand for goat milk, he sources additional supply from his “goat buddies” the likes of Neo Abalos and Martin Poblador in Lian, Batangas.

Despite the challenges in the business, this milk man declares that goat raising is very fulfilling. economically and psychologically. For this reason, he is quick to make the funny, comforting and maybe ‘blasphemous’ remarks that St. Elmo’s goat is sacred because it is indeed, ” g… the father, g… the son and g…the holy Goat!” And hastily with a wide smile. he says ” if its St Elmo’s its ‘goatta’ and gotta be good”.

Gutsy ladies
The adjective aptly describes these two lady entrepreneurs who have decided to add value to the primary products from goat.

Yolly Raca. This chemist has been very aggressively supporting the goat industry by creating an allied business on personal care products with goat milk as an important component. Yolly buys the milk from St. Elmo’s Goat. Her KALPANA company brand has soap variants for moisturizing and also whitening already in the local market. In fact, aside from the 25 percent goat milk in the bar of soap, included in the formulation is virgin coconut oil - an ingredient reported wondrous effects on human skin. Already in the offing are milk based lipsticks and creams formulated to suit the discriminating taste of the modern Filipina.

Her frequent travels abroad and her participation in trade expos gave her the exposure and confidence necessary to venture into this high end value adding product from goat. For Filipinos conscious about personal care, it is common to find one will occasionally skip a meal and use the money to buy a vanity product instead. Thus, despite the umpteen soaps and soap brands in the market, Yolly’s products will easily penetrate the local market for personal care products. What’s more, these products are especially formulated for the Filipino skin. What a fragrant prospect indeed!

Amelia Coronel. She is the general manager of Fortress Food Mfg Corporation which sells certified Halal goat meat in different variants such as kalderetang kambing (chevon stew), sinampalukang kambing (chevon with tamarind soup) and papaitang kambing (chevon offals soup). The Corporation’s abattoir has been certified technically by the National Meat Inspection Commission while the orientation and physical location of the abattoir, the slaughtering process, the meat and the canned products are certified by the Islamic Dawah Council of the Philippines.

As Halal certified, the canned products can already be exported to the Middle East and even to Malaysia. According to Mel and Yolly (Yolly Raca is also a partner of Fortress Food), the investment in the Halal certified slaughter house and canned products has challenged them. Now that their products are already in supermarkets (Makro is one), it inspires them immensely.

Today, these courageous ladies are excited about their participation to the Philippine Food Caravan in the Gulf this year. As a new comers in the business, they have to exploit all opportunities for exposure and promotion. Furthermore, the vast market of the East offers many possibilities with the thousands of Filipino OFWs there longing for the ‘lutong pinoy’- a delicious longing the lady duo is trying to address and capture.

Finding the niche
As the goat industry continues to expand, allied industries will also grow hand in hand with it. Along with this expansion will be greater opportunities to participate in the vibrant dynamics to create value adding products from a traditional commodity. Innovation and creativity will then be the keys to finding one’s niche in this still limited enterprise of commercializing products from goats beyond the slaughter and breeder animals.

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