How To Make Benificial Micro Organism EM-1

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mikey:
1 kilo ripen fruit (any fruit,the riper the better) not rotten
1 kilo molasses
1 litre clean water
yeast and a little salt
place in a jar (not glass) loose fitting lid(gas has to escape)and store in a cool dark place for 5-7 days
after 5-7 days strain,place in a clean jar(not glass,plastic is better),glass jars have been known to explode under pressure.Mixture maybe good for 30 days.

to use mix 1 tablespoon to 1 litre clean water and spray the goat flooring and under the goat house every week or 2 weeks on any other livestock area (pens and stalls)
Forgot to say,if you want to use it on manure only,then spray direct (no mixing with water) weekly.

This is only a very basic way of making EM-1,there are better methods of making it.
Be careful because once the yeast starts to eat the sugars, gas will form and this is when it becomes unstable and the reason for no glass jars or containers,the lid has to be loose enough to allow the gas to escape.

helps control ordors and flys

mikey:
How to Produce Your Own Probiotics
Probiotics are dietary supplements and live microorganisms containing potentially beneficial bacteria or yeasts. According to the currently adopted definition by FAO/WHO, probiotics are: ‘Live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host’.

Materials:
1/4 kg broken rice (binlud)
1 kg brown sugar or molasses

Equipment:
Cooking pot Shallow tray Old newspapers Straws for tying
Wide mouth bottles (for storing)

Procedure:
1. Cook porridge out of broken rice. Cool and spread on shallow tray about 1 inch thick.
2. Cover the tray with newspaper and lightly tie it with straw to prevent insects from crawling in.

3. Place the tray in shady portion of kitchen or in nearby bamboo clump or trees.
4. After five to seven days, remove the porridge and place in wide mouth container. Add molasses or brown sugar and mix thoroughly. Keep it lightly covered for three to five days. Use it only for two months. By then, the beneficial organisms may become dormant.

Usage:
For chickens, turkeys and ducks: Add 1 teaspoon of IMO to I liter clean water and give to chicken everyday. This can be used also for watering plants and soil in the afternoon.

For pigs, goat, sheep, and cattle: Give two tablespoons per 25 kg body weight. Mix in either wet or dry feeds both for morning and afternoon feeding.

For plants: Add 100-250 ml IMO per 16 liters of water and use as blanket spray on soil every week to activate beneficial bacteria in the soil. Add 50 ml IMO to herbal mixture of pounded leaves of garlic vine, onions, garlic, and other aromatic leaves to activate beneficial bacteria in plants.

mikey:
Make your own Oriental Herbal Nutrient (OHN)
More and more people are getting interested in natural farming. To make a profitable operation, you can make your inputs like fermented juices for your plants as well as your animals.

One of the fermented products used in natural farming is the so-called Oriental Herbal Nutrient or OHN, which is a natural pest repellant in growing your crops. It is also used in enhancing the nutrients of livestock feed.

Andry Lim of Helen’s Farm in Davao City, a strong advocate of natural farming, gave us the procedure on how to make your own OHN. It is effective in strengthening the immune system of plants as well as animals.

The ingredients used are 4 kilos of crushed ginger, 4 kilos of crushed garlic, 3 kilos of muscovado sugar; 10 liters of gin or liquor 30 to 40 proof. Use a 5-gallon jar for fermenting., preferably glass or ceramic.

First, mix by hand the 4 kg crushed garlic, 4 kg crushed ginger and 3 kg muscovado sugar or molasses. Cover the jar and keep it sealed. After three days, add 10 liters of gin. Keep the jar sealed. See to it that the jar is not fully filled. Leave at least 2 inches unfilled.

Decant the liquid after 10 days. The first extract is good for animals. Together with other juices (fermented fruit juice, fermented plant juice, and fish amino acid), OHN is incorporated in the animal feeds. That’s how Andry Lim makes his own feed formulation for his naturally-farmed pigs.

After decanting, add the same amount of gin taken from the first extraction. Andry says you may add fresh or dry chili, neem fruit, curry fruit, makabuhay and marigold for stronger potency. After 10 days, extract the juice. This is good for use in growing plants.

After the second extraction, add the same amount of gin. After 10 days, extract the liquid again. Here’s how to use the concoction. Mix two tablespoons of OHN per liter of water. Add this to the other fermented juices and spray on the leaves of the plants and on the soil every week. It is good for all stages of plant growth.

Written by Zac Sarian

Source: Manila Bulletin

mikey:
Using the ordinary to cultivate the mysterious power of beneficial indigenous microorganisms
Like a cut-rate magician, Philippine farmer and scientist Gil Carandang teaches farmers how to use cheap vodka, generic brown sugar, milk, rice and local soil to harness local microorganisms as invisible workhorses on their farms.

By Lisa M. Hamilton
 
 
 
Gil Carandang: Full-time farmer, Fulbright scholar, and passionate advocate for empowering farmers to harness the indigenous life of the soil right on their farms.
 
Who wouldn’t be suspicious? Right from the get-go this workshop is promising cure-all concoctions that bring new life to everything they touch. The potions work in ways that are difficult to explain and impossible to actually see. The man conducting the affair is fast-talking and charismatic—he even lives in a far-off land. The whole thing smells like snake oil.

Here’s the catch: Gil Carandang, this crafty man from the Philippines, is not trying to sell us anything. In fact, he wants us to buy as little as possible—that’s the point of this seminar. The lesson that’s officially on the agenda is the same as the event’s formal title: “Cultivating Beneficial Indigenous Microorganisms.” But what’s really being taught here, the true objective, is the empowerment of farmers.

By learning how to cultivate microorganisms, growers become able to meet their needs with what exists on the farm and can stop buying amendments from chemical companies (purveyors who, some might argue, are the real peddlers in modern farming). The technology was born of ingenuity, but it has spread by financial necessity, primarily among farmers in developing countries for whom agricultural chemicals are painfully expensive.

“This technology can reduce your costs by 30 to 50%,” Carandang says. “It sounds amazing, but that’s the percent most farmers spend on pesticides and fertilizer. On my farm, we have only two medicines: Lacto bacillus and ginger-garlic extract. We make both ourselves.”

Learning how to do that is what has drawn a sold-out crowd to this vegetable farm in Bolinas, California, for one of Carandang’s rare seminars in North America. (The class covered both cultivating microorganisms and making fermented plant extracts. Only the former is discussed here.)

No hifalutin nonsense, just affordable techniques that work

 
Tools of the trade: Sugar, vodka, milk, garlic, mango, rice … Carandang uses these and other everyday ingredients to cultivate microorganisms in solutions that can be diluted and sprayed on compost piles to speed fermentation, or on plants to improve nutrient uptake or fight disease. The vodka shown here was used to make fermented plant extracts, which were covered in the California workshop, but not in this article.

It’s a simple set-up, with chairs crammed into the barn and facing a makeshift stage in the packing area. At center stage stand two folding tables. On them lie the unexpected tools of this fantastic technology: A box of generic brown sugar and a bulb of garlic. A quart of milk, a cutting board, and some cooked white rice. A liter of the cheapest vodka in California, and a Miller High Life tall boy.

 RODALE INSTITUTE RESEARCH SPOTLIGHT

Ongoing research at The Rodale Institute® sheds light on one important component of the soil community--mycorrhizal fungi--and its impact on agricultural production. Under the leadership of Dr. David Douds, a soil microbiologist with the USDA's Agricultural Research Service, field trials have shown yield gains of as much as 50% in the presence of healthy mycorrhizae populations. Now Douds is developing a practical, low-cost method for on-farm production of mycorrhizal soil inoculant, promising higher yields with lower nutrient inputs.
He sounds like a crackpot, but in fact Carandang has studied farming all over the world, including as a Fulbright scholar. (He now farms full-time back in the Philippines.) This odd display of un-magical ingredients is evidence not of a sham, but rather of his emphasis on making technology accessible. You see, discussions of beneficial microorganisms usually take one of two dangerous paths. People either get New Age-y with it and scare listeners off, or (for fear of being called New Age-y), they legitimize the concept using complicated scientific formulas—to much the same effect. Carandang takes the middle road.

“In the Philippines, I’m usually teaching people who have never been to school, and they get it fine,” he says. “We don’t need no high-falutin’ nonsense around here.”

With today’s distinctly educated, Western crowd, the message doesn’t sink in immediately. Everyone is scribbling madly to keep up with Carandang’s patter, careful to not miss a word of the lesson. But as we are figuring out how to spell “hifalutin”, he catches us off-guard. “What matters here is that you understand the very essence of this idea. So stop taking notes, just listen.”

We lift our heads, and I realize that Carandang has been talking for an hour now and hasn’t touched a thing on the table. With an American teacher we would have photocopies of a syllabus and already be on section 2b. Instead, our teacher is circling around the subject, peeling off the outer layers of meaning, waxing on about the macrocosmic workings of Nature.

We don’t know it now, but this conceptual approach is essential to the practice we came to learn. Understanding the idea itself works as a sort of inoculant; without it, the act of Cultivating Beneficial Indigenous Microorganisms is more or less useless.

“This is rather than just ‘Oh, let’s spray this, and put on this fertilizer every two weeks,” he says. “Instead, you just need to open your eyes and pay attention, slow down the process. The plant will talk back. Not literally, but it will always tell us what is wrong, what is deficient. How could you know what it needs if you haven’t paid attention?”

Growing soil, not plants: Building up the soil’s life and biodiversity

Behind Carandang and the makeshift stage is an old forest so dense and tangled you can hardly make out its individual members. It turns out it is the perfect backdrop. Promoting health and growth are the objectives of this technology, and the forest has both in spades—naturally. It’s because of its biodiversity.

We all know the biodiversity spiel: the more life a place supports, the more variation it has; that variation means competition, which regulates populations into healthy numbers. The more a place is allowed to be natural, the more it balances itself out.

Natural balance is not the goal of the farmer, his work being the cultivation of select members of the ecosystem. But again: single crops, tight geometry, and insects and weeds eliminated, altogether mean a sterile environment that can’t keep itself in check. But a farm with variegated fields and wild plants and insects that feed sparrows that feed hawks is one that begins to balance itself.

Now, few farmers import hawks to strengthen their farm ecosystems. You just can’t insert something that high up the food chain and expect it to survive. Instead, build the system that supports it, and the hawks will come on their own.

“It’s not all about NPK here,” Carandang says. “It’s not all about sun, air, et cetera, it’s all about all. It’s all about one, about a whole unit. The more you are able to understand this, the more you’ll be able to practice good farming.”

Rather than grow plants, Carandang advocates growing soil. Not multiplying dirt, but building up the soil’s life and diversity—that is the foundation of this system. And the building blocks are microorganisms, whose most essential work is to break down nutrients into forms that are accessible to plants and animals. Without them, the planet would be bare rock.

“There is a Chinese proverb that goes, ‘Add humility to intelligence, it becomes wisdom. Add passion or fire to wisdom, it becomes enlightenment,’” Carandang says. “In soil fertility, it’s the same basis, that’s my opinion. It’s the fire that makes the living soil, and the fire is the microorganisms.”

This is the part where most of the world shakes its head. No amount of microorganisms could be as effective as bringing in a load of compost or spraying fungicides. They are too small to be powerful, too unfamiliar to be essential.

And yet farmers rely on them all the time. That pink dye on legume seed, for instance, is there to tell you the seed will fix nitrogen because it has been doused with the necessary inoculant—itself a beneficial microorganism. Anyone who has ever watched a compost heap steam has seen the strength of beneficial microorganisms, and anyone who has ever taken acidophilus to recover from antibiotics has felt them at work.

Any farmer who has suffered Phytopthera or Verticillium is familiar with microorganisms, but not the good kind. Luckily, as Carandang explains, these pathogens comprise only three to five percent of all microbes. “If it were more,” he says, “we’d all be dead.”

Plants and humans are protected from pathogens by diversity—it leads to competition, which prevents any single microbe from going out of control. In the forest, this diversity comes naturally as different plants and animals attract and support different microorganisms. But if you have, say, just grapes and cover crops planted, you’re not encouraging diversity, in fact you’re discouraging it. That is why you introduce microbes.

Making microbes

 
Dennis Dierks, host: Dennis has been working with Gil’s micro brews for over a year now, and says “I haven’t been this excited about farming for 25 years.” His customers tell him his vegetables taste better and last longer.

But first you must have the microbes. And that, hours later, is why we are in the barn, rather cold after sitting here for so long, but patiently learning how to Cultivate Beneficial Indigenous Microorganisms.

The act itself, in all its variations, might take 15 minutes to demonstrate. It’s a basic formula: Set out carbohydrates to attract microbes from a place—its air, its soil, its plants and animals. Feed the microbes sugar so they’ll multiply (or in the case of Lacto bacilli, feed them milk to encourage a specific population). Dilute the potion and apply it to whatever needs help.

If sheer diversity is the objective, then the microbes are collected from the wildest place one can find. The owner of this farm, Dennis Dierks, has wilderness at his doorstep, and so collected his microbes from the woods behind Carandang’s stage. Where there is no forest, the objective is still to find the place with greatest diversity. This could be even on the farm itself—a wild area behind the compost pile, or a healthy hedgerow. In fact, the closer to the farm, the better, as the most beneficial microbes are those naturally adapted to the ecosystem.

As the microbes are attracted and arrive to eat the carbohydrates, they go from invisible to visible, but just barely. Forest microbes are collected using cooked white rice, and success is marked by the appearance, after a few days, of mold. Lacto bacilli are heralded by the curdling of milk, other microbes simply by a sour smell to the liquid they’re in. Add some sugar, though, and the transformation is mind-blowing.

Last year, I saw Dierks’ brews as they came to life in his potting shed. They weren’t pretty, mostly soupy brown liquids in jugs and buckets, but the life inside them was astonishing. He went to give me a smell of one, labeled “Root Brew,” only to find the bottle cap had been sealed on by liquid seeping out from inside. He wrenched the plastic bottle between his hands, pulled, and bang! The cap popped off and liquid exploded all over the shed.

We stood there for a moment, our bare arms and faces and shirts brown and wet, Dennis holding what had become a sated volcano, calm but still dribbling out lava. “If this were chemicals we would be totally poisoned right now,” he said, “not to mention out of a lot of money. But that’s the beauty of it. Instead, your skin feels soft. It feels alive. And it’s free. I haven’t been this excited about farming for 25 years.”

Later in the season, several of Dierks’ long-time customers commented that his produce tasted better than in years past, and was keeping for longer. Meanwhile, Diane Matthews, another local farmer who had learned Carandang’s techniques, was using her own microbe brew to fight off the Phytopthera that was decimating her raspberries. “The plants were supposed to die,” she said at the workshop. “I didn’t know what would happen, but I figured I’d try the forest microbes. What happened was the Phytopthera disappeared. I got a crop at Thanksgiving! The berries were small, but their taste was excellent.”

The specific power of Lacto

Carandang explains that one can also home in on specific microbes for targeted results. The most useful is Lacto bacillus. This microorganism is the workhorse of the human digestive system (though luckily it is also found elsewhere). On the farm it’s used for similar tasks of digestion, something Dierks was relieved to hear last winter after the NOP had mandated that all manure be fully broken down before use. He applied his L. bacillus culture to the mound of manure beside his field, and the composting was faster than ever. Similarly, when sprayed on plants, L. bacilli will digest the biomass on the leaves and stems—dust, for instance, or mud—thus making that free food available to its host.

“Lacto” is the only microbe Carandang will mention by name, but it is only one of millions that can be collected and used. His instructions are characteristically simple: walk around the farm, find elements you want to reproduce, and collect the microbes that surround them. You could get the microbes from around a particularly robust tomato plant and spray that on next year’s crop. (These concoctions last for months, even years.) To make a growth promoter, find a beanstalk growing like mad, clip the leaves at the top of vine (where all the growth is happening) and make a brew of the resident microbes. Do it with bamboo, or even kelp, which grows inches each day.

“In the Philippines, we use water lettuce,” Carandang says. “We spray it on the cucumbers and boom! You can do that and be three or five days ahead of the other local farmers. If you’re a market gardener, that can be a big deal.”

After talking for nearly seven hours straight, Carandang ends the workshop because the daylight is starting to fade. The energy in the barn only rises. Despite the chill in the air and the stiff legs it granted us, we are all now bustling about, discussing how we plan—already—to put the technology to work.

Alan Mart does organic landscaping and soil management plans. His first thought is to collect the microbes from willow roots, which suffer no transplant shock, and apply them to other, more fragile specimens that he’s planting.

Patty Salmon is a goat rancher who has been turning her farm organic for years, but has always hit a wall when it comes to feed. With only 8 acres, she can’t possibly grow all the grain and forage for her herd of 100. Carandang explained that his brother, a chicken farmer, ferments his feed and applies Lacto bacillus to it. This causes a pre-digestion that makes a greater percentage of the nutrients available to the chickens, and results in their eating less. Salmon thinks maybe she can extend her reach by doing the same.

Also conferring are Doug Gallagher and Annabelle Lenderink, from Star Route Farms, one of the oldest and most venerated organic farms in the country. Gallagher heard about beneficial microorganisms 25 years ago, and the farm is already using some store-bought varieties to combat lettuce drop and mildew. They’ve had moderate success, though Gallagher admits they continue using them less because of quantifiable effects and more because he believes in the concept. He’s hopeful that will change with microbes collected from the farm’s forested acreage, which have evolved to thrive in that particular piece of land. And if not, well, at least they’re free.

Of course Carandang is swarmed with students and their questions after the talk. While waiting their turns, a few pick up the two clean brown bottles on the larger folding table. They contain Carandang’s own Lacto bacillus culture, made back in the Philippines. He brings them along to demonstrate a finished product, but he also has a few for sale. Frankly, though, for all his charms, he’s a terrible businessman. One workshop student carries a bottle over to him and asks the price.

“It’s ten dollars,” Carandang says, “but you don’t need to buy it. Just make your own. I guarantee it will be better.”

Gil Carandang offers workshops and, for those who cannot attend, detailed booklets on indigenous microorganism cultivation and other innovative technologies. Carandang has also written a book on the topic, Indigenous Microorganisms - Grow your own: Beneficial indigenous microorganisms and bionutrients in natural farming. To order write to: Gil Carandang
Herbana Farms, Km. 59 burol, Calamba City, Laguna, Philippines, email: gil_carandang@... or visit: www.herbanafarms.com

Lisa M. Hamilton is a California journalist and fine-arts photographer with a flair for explaining regenerative agriculture themes.
 
 
 

ayeshaaakter:
 For purposes of this Fact Sheet, we classify insects and mites as pests based on their ability to damage vegetable plants and reduce your harvest from the home garden. Many insects, and all spiders, found in home vegetable gardens are beneficial and control of these insects is not recommended.


 Monitoring Pest Insects in the Home Garden
 Insects and mites can move into your garden and then rapidly increase in numbers. You should examine plants in and around the garden throughout the season at least twice weekly. Use magnification to aid in identifying insects and mites. Examine a few plants of each cultivar thoroughly, searching under leaves, inside developing fruit, along stems and at the plant crown. Note feeding damage signs such as insect excrement, holes in leaves or fruit and/or twisted or deformed leaves. Make notes indicating the number or extent of damage from week to week to aid in determining whether insects and/or damage is increasing.


Identify the Insect
Color photos of the most common insect pests and descriptions of others are included in this fact sheet. You should be able to develop a general classification of the pest based on this information. Once you have identified the pest, you should classify the type and amount of damage it is causing.



 Controlling Pests
 The best control is prevention. Pest problems can often be prevented by developing and maintaining a healthy crop through soil fertility, proper irrigation, choosing crops suited to the climate and soil, and by removing small infestations before they become a problem. Once you have identified a pest problem based on the type and amount of damage and made a decision to control the pest, you should consider the following. There are numerous methods of controlling pests; the most effective control often is achieved by combining control techniques.


Cultural Control
Vigorous, rapidly growing plants often ‘outgrow’ pest damage. You should plant recommended cultivars, maintain fertile soil with proper pH and moisture providing your garden a means to outgrow pest damage.

Sanitation - dispose of infested plant and trash materials that harbor pests and cultivate the soil to expose and destroy pests in the soil.
Weed control - keep the garden border areas mowed and trimmed and cultivate the garden to control unwanted plants (weeds) that serve as hosts to insects that can move over to your vegetable plants.
Time your plantings - many insect pests, including the corn earworm and squash bug, are less numerous early in the season and an early planting of vegetables will often ‘escape’ with little to no damage.
Traps are devices that collect or cause insects to con¬gregate, such as flat boards on top of the soil in the garden. Check the traps frequently and collect and destroy the insect pests in the traps.
Barriers serve to exclude pests from the crop and include the use of paper collars around the stem collar of young transplants that prevents cutworms from attacking and destroying plants. Other barriers include row covers made of transparent or translucent covers of woven plastic that allow light to enter, but block insects. Typically, these row covers are supported above the plants with hoop frames although light weight woven covers can rest on the canopy.
Mechanical removal by hand picking or washing with a directed stream of water is effective for large insects or eggs and for small, soft-bodied insects or mites.

Biological Control
Many insects and other arthropods feed on and destroy insects that are pests in gardens. Examples include the lady beetle and spiders that feed on insect eggs, larvae, aphids and mites. These BENEFICIAL arthropods are best used by preserving or augmenting their numbers. You can maintain a diverse and healthy garden by NOT spraying the garden unnecessarily with insecticides and by maintaining a diverse planting that provides alternate sources of prey, nectar and pollen. Beneficial insects can be purchased from suppliers and released in mass numbers but this practice has not proven reliable with the exception of release and management in greenhouses. (Refer to EPP-7307 Beneficial Insects). Many insects are attacked by pathogens that cause diseases that kill the insect pests. Most disease outbreaks occur during periods of wet and humid weather.
For more information, click here,
pest control

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