Crops and Vegetables Planting Guide:

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How to improve upland rice cultivation

8. Farmers can use new implements

With animals and 8 plough the soil can be prepared better and more quickly. It is also possible to cultivate larger fields.

On a well- prepared soil the seed can be sown in rows. This makes it easier to remove weeds.

By preparing the soil, sowing in rows and weeding, yields can be greatly increased, even doubled.

9. They can apply manure and fertilizers.

Once farmers have used new tools they get a bigger harvest and more money. With the money they earn, the farmers can buy fertilizers.

If the plants are given manure or fertilizer, they will be well nourished. The harvest will be bigger, and the soil keeps its fertility. The same fields can grow crops for a longer time.

Once the farmers use new tools and also apply manure and fertilizers, they are growing upland rice by very modern methods.

10. They can protect the rice against pests.

It is difficult to keep off the rats and the birds. You can have a watchman near the field. Noise can frighten the birds away. Rice fields must be watched especially at the time when the grain begins to ripen.

There are also certain insects that damage rice, for example, rice borers, which lay their eggs on the leaves. When they grow, they eat through the stem. When the stems go white, apply BHC (benzene hexachloride) and Aldrin, a product which can kill these insects. Ask your extension service for this product.

Using new implements

11. A plough, a harrow and a hoe drawn by animals help you work better and more quickly.

You can cultivate larger fields.

This will give you a more plentiful harvest.

Every year, you will earn a little more money. That way, you can pay for new implements and keep on making new progress.

As these implements are drawn by animals, you use the strength of the animals.

In studying animal husbandry, we have already seen how to use animals.

If you wish to use animal power, read Booklets 8, 9, 11 and 14 of this series.

Now we shall study how to plough, sow and cultivate. With good ploughing, good sowing, and several cultivations, you will get much more plentiful harvests.

12. With a plough and a harrow the soil is better prepared.

The plough loosens the soil and tills it more deeply. The roots of the rice develop better, the rice gets more nourishment.

The soil is prepared more quickly.

You will be able to sow at the right time. It is very important to sow at the right time.

You will also be able to sow larger fields.

If you sow larger fields at the right time, your rice production will be much larger.

13. A hoe helps to remove weeds more quickly.

Whenever weeds have grown, you can remove them more quickly.

Then the weeds do not take water and mineral salts out of the soil.

The rice can use all the nourishment from the soil.

But in order to cultivate with a hoe, you must sow in rows.

The use of plough and hoe greatly increases the yield.

Preparing the soil

Most often, rice is sown on a field that has already been cultivated perhaps after a crop of yams, or groundnuts, or cotton.

The work of clearing the field has already been done before growing yams, or groundnuts or cotton.

14. Tillage.

Before sowing, you must prepare the soil; that is, you must till it.

If you till 15 to 20 centimetres deep, this will stir the earth very well. Do this work with the plough or the hoe.

Tilling loosens the soil; it gets air and water well into the soil.

Tilling enables you to mix the herbage with the soil. When the herbage rots, it makes humus.

On flat land, if a soil has been well loosened by tilling, the water penetrates well and stays for a long time. Therefore, till at the beginning of the rainy season, so that the soil holds the water. This first tilling is very important; do it just as soon as you can move the soil.

Slopes should not be tilled where there is a danger of rain carrying the soil away.

Tilling, or turning the soil over, can be done with the hoe, the spade or the digging fork. But this is slow and tiring work.

Nowadays, people use a plough drawn by donkeys or oxen.
This way the work is done better and more quickly.

15. The plough.

Most often, people use a simple plough. The plough consists of a ploughshare, a mouldboard and two handles

Handles for holding the plough

16. How to plough.

Make a first furrow with the plough across the whole length of the field.

At the end of the field, turn. Make a second furrow alongside the first.

The second strip of ploughed field joins the first.

After that, keep turning around the double strip of ploughed field.

This is called conventional ploughingthe field is divided into ploughed lance separated by a furrow.

Conventional ploughing

17. Now the field is well ploughed. But ploughing often does not leave the soil flat. There are clods of earth

These clods of earth are broken up with a harrow. If you do not have a harrow, you can let an animal draw big branches of trees over the field. The branches crush the clods.

The branches crush the clods


18. Choosing the seeds.

If you have already grown a rice crop, choose the best seeds from your own harvest. Remove broken rice grains, misshapen grains, and grains attacked by insects.

It is best to use selected seeds.

If you have worked hard to prepare your field very well, you will get a better harvest if your seeds are well chosen.

The extension services and research centres have selected rice varieties best suited to the climate of each region, disease- resisting varieties which provide high yields.

Once you have chosen good seeds, use the finest seeds of your own harvest for sowing in the following years.

19. Disinfecting the seeds.

The disinfectant is available from the extension services. Mix the seeds and the disinfectant very well, so that the disinfectant covers all the seeds.

For example, you might mix 200 grammes of a disinfectant such as Crgan with 100 kilogrammes of rice seed.

20. Disinfectant is poisonous

Be very careful in using it:

- Wash your hands well after touching the disinfectant.

- Never give disinfected seeds to animals.

- Never leave the disinfectant where children can get at it.

Disinfected seeds are not eaten by insects. Disinfected seeds do not rot easily. All the seeds will grow, there will be very few plants missing.

Disinfection makes for good density, and so the yield is better.

Device for disinfecting seeds

21. Sowing in rows.

Farmers have the habit of broadcasting their seed.

If the seed is broadcast, it is very difficult later to remove the weeds.

If the seed is sown in rows, it is easier to remove weeds.

The animal that draws the hoe can walk between the rows.

On flat soil, you can trace your rows with a marker. Leave 40 centimetres between rows. The spikes of the marker make a little furrow.

In this furrow, put your rice seeds.

Leave 1 to 2 centimetres between seeds. Cover the seeds with a little earth.

You will need between 30 and 50 kilogrammes of seed for 1 hectare.

22. On net soil you can use a seed- planting machine, called a seed drill.

In several countries people are beginning to use these seed drills, which are drawn by a donkey or by oxen. The seed drill makes a furrow and places the seeds in the soil at the same distance from each other and all at the same depth.

With some seed drills the fertilizer can be applied at the same time.

Use a seed- planting machine

Seed drill

23. If the field is on a slope, make the seed rows along the contour lines and leave barrier strips between the different levels of soil.

This helps to reduce erosion.

Fast- flowing water carries away some soil.

It is dirty water mixed with soil.

When you slow up the water, the soil in the water drops to the ground.

The water becomes cleaner and the soil is not lost.

What is a contour line? Look at these two drawings.

Liass in the direction of the slope

These lines follow the direction of the slope. Water flows very fast and carries away the soil.

Lines across the slope

These lines cut across the slope along the contour lines. Water and soil are held back.

A contour line is a line across the slope running always at the same height.

24. What is a barrier strip?

A barrier strip is an uncultivated strip of land. Grass grows on this strip and holds back the water so that the soil drops to the ground. The barrier strips must also follow the contour lines. A barrier strip should be about 2 metres wide.

To hold back the water better, you can plant tall grasses.

If the slope is very gentle, you can leave 30 to 40 metres between barrier strips.

If the slope is steeper, leave only 10 to 20 metres between barrier strips.

Do not grow rice if the slope is very steep.

Do not grow rice if the slope is very steep


Cultivate 15 to 20 days after sowing, and again whenever fresh weeds have grown.


25. Why cultivations are needed.

Cultivating means removing weeds by hoeing.

Weeds prevent the rice from growing well:

- they take water out of the soil

- they take mineral salts out of the soil.

When you cultivate well the buds at the bottom of the main stem can develop and make new stems. This is called tillering.

For every grain you sow, you will get several stems and every stem makes a head or panicle of rice.

26. How to cultivate.

You can cultivate either with a hand hoe or with an animal- drawn cultivator. With an animal- drawn cultivator, the work is done more quickly and you can cultivate more often.


Whenever you see that weeds have grown, you must remove them.

Pull out the weeds that have grown between the rows. If any weeds grow in the rows, pull them out by hand. Remove the side teeth of the cultivator so that you can pass with it between the rows.

Rice sown on a well- prepared field, at the right time and In rows, and protected by frequent cultivations, will give a good harvest.

Using fertilizers

27. You are now ready for further progress.

If you use new tools and also apply fertilizers, you will be growing upland rice by very modern methods. You have seen how you can make good use of animal- drawn tools.

You can get a good harvest if you:

- till your field well

- sow well

- weed well

- cultivate a larger field,

You will find that you earn more money.

With the money earned from your crop, you can buy fertilizers

We shall now study how to use fertilizers so that you can earn a lot more money. If you use fertilizers, you keep the soil fertile or even make it more fertile.

Once you do that, you change from shifting cultivation to continuous cultivation.

Why apply manure or chemical fertilizers?

28. To get a good harvest

It you apply manure or chemical fertilizers to your rice field, the rice will tiller vigorously (see paragraph 25) and bear many grains: The yield will be good.

29. To keep the soil rich

Chemical fertilizers give back to the soil the mineral salts which the plants take out. Manure gives the soil organic matter. It makes humus and improves the soil structure.

To keep the soil rich

30. Chemical fertilizers and manure cost a lot of money.

They will not pay

- if you grow your crop on too steep a elope the mineral salts of the manure and fertilizers are washed away by water together with the soil.

- if you do not till the soil well because in badly prepared soil the roots cannot develop well.

- if you do not sow selected varieties because unimproved varieties use the manure and fertilizers less well.

- if you do not sow your seeds in rows and at the right time because plants sown too late will not yield so well.

- if you do not cultivate about 3 weeks after sowing and whenever new weeds grow because with fertilizers, the weeds grow better. If you do not remove them often, they may take a large part of the nourishment from the rice.

- if you do not rotate your crops correctly

After 8 rice crop, the soil will still have some of the mineral salts added by the manure and the chemical fertilizers. You must make the right choice of the crop you will grow on the same field after the rice. If possible, choose one that will use the mineral salts still in the soil.

The money earned from a good crop will easily pay for the fertilizers you need.

What fertilizers to use

31. Fertilizers are different.

- according to the crop rotation:

Plants do not all take the same quantity of each mineral salt out of the soil. Before sowing rice, you must therefore give back to the soil the mineral salts taken out by the preceding crop.

These mineral salts are contained in chemical fertilizers.

- according to regions:

The soils of different regions are often different; they do not contain the same quantity of each mineral salt.

For example, a soil very poor in nitrogen must be given a lot of nitrogen.

You can see that a soil is poor in nitrogen if the young leaves turn yellow.

Organic manure and chemical fertilizers

32. Organic manures are animal manure and green manure.

Organic manures improve the structure of the soil. Plants grow better in a soil of good structure, and the chemical fertilizers are used better.

Organic manuring should therefore be done at the beginning of the rotation, that is, before growing the first crop on a field.
For example

If in the first year after clearing the field you grow a crop of yams and the second year you grow rice, you must apply organic manure in the first year before you plant your yams.

33. Chemical fertilizers.

You know that the main chemical fertilizers are:

- Nitrogen (N)

- Phosphorus (P)

- Potassium (K)

Rice needs above all nitrogen.

The nitrogen fertilizer most often suitable for the soils of Africa is ammonium sulfate.

But rice also needs phosphorus and potassium. If the rice cannot take out of the soil enough phosphorus and potassium, the stems are not strong and so they bend down to the earth so that the grains cannot form and ripen well.

Ask advice from the extension services in your area. They will tell you how much fertilizer to apply to your rice field.

It is best to apply nitrogen, that is, ammonium sulfate, in three separate applications:

For example

It you have to give your field 100 kilogrammes of ammonium sulfate, apply:

- 40 kg before sowing,

- 30 kg after the first cultivation,

- 30 kg when you see the panicles are forming.

Be careful not to let ammonium sulfate, get onto the leaves; the fertilizer may burn them.

Phosphoric acid and potassium are applied before sowing.


You will get a better price for your rice crop

- If you cut your rice only when it is ripe

- If the rice is well dried and threshed

- If it has been well stored.

34. Cutting.

Cut the rice when it is ripe.

Wait until the heads are almost entirely yellow.

You can cut the rice more quickly with a sickle.

Cut the rice

35. Drying.
When you have cut the rice, make sheaves by binding a lot of stems together. There are two ways of drying sheaves well.

Wither: Stack the sheaves so that they lean against each other, standing upright with heads upward, and place one sheaf over the top of the heads, so as to protect the grains from the rain;

Or: Lean the sheaves against a stick supported by two poles.

Either way the rice can dry well.

Leave the rice to dry for three or four days before threshing.

Sheaves leaning against a stick supported by 2 poles

36. Threshing.

There are three ways of threshing well.

Wither: Put the rice on a hard piece of ground, very clean and without dust, or covered with mats, and beat the heads with a stick;

Or: Beat the rice against a large stone or a tree trunk;

Or Use a small thresher. You can join with a few other farmers and buy a small thresher together. In this way the work can be done better and more quickly.

Small rice thresher

37. Winnowing.

It is important that the rice grains should be very clean, and not mixed up with earth and little stones. When you have threshed your rice, winnow it to make it quite clean.

For winnowing, use a sieve or else pour the rice from one flat bowl into another.

The wind blows the dirt away

38. Storing.

Rice can be stored either in sacks or in a barn.

The sacks and the barn must be protected

- against damp, which makes the grains rot

- against rats and insects, which eat or spoil the grains.

The barn floor must not touch the ground. This will keep the rice dry.

The barns must be disinfected. Ask the local extension service what disinfectants to use and how to apply them: some disinfectants are poisonous.

Rice can be eaten by the family. Rice can also be sold, either on the market or to companies which resell it afterwards.

Rice is a crop which can pay well.

Better Farming Series 20 - Upland Rice (FAO - INADES

The cocoa tree (Theobroma cacao) is a native of the dense tropical Amazon forests where it flourishes in the semi-shade and high humidities, but wild varieties also occur from Mexico to Peru. The Mayas of Yucatan and the Aztecs of Mexico cultivated cocoa long before its introduction to Europe, and Montezuma, Emperor of the Aztecs, is stated to have consumed regularly a preparation called chocolate made by roasting and grinding the cocoa nibs, followed by mashing with water, maize, anatto, chilli and spice flavours. The richness of this mixture no doubt had some connection with the Aztec belief that the cocoa tree was of divine origin and later led the Swedish botanist, Linnaeus, to give the name Theobroma - Food of the Gods - to the genus including the cacao species. The Aztecs also considered the drink to have aphrodisiac properties.

The genus Theobroma consists of some twenty-two species of small bushes and trees.
Theobroma cacao is the only one of commercial value and this species is divided into two main groups:

There is a third group known as Trinitario which is basically a cross of the two.

The growing conditions required by the cocoa tree are fairly precise and the areas of cultivation lie within 20 degrees latitude of the equator.

The temperature in cocoa growing areas is usually between 30C and 32C. The minimum
allowable is 18C.

Rainfall levels of 1,150 to 3,000mm are required.

Soil conditions can vary considerably but a firm roothold and moisture retention are necessary.

It is traditional for cocoa to be grown under shade trees although such conditions
resemble those in its natural habitat it has been shown that higher yields can be obtained
without shade if sufficient moisture and nutrients are made available.

Propagation by seed is the most economical way of increasing stock but vegetative
methods can also be used and these provide a more consistent and reliable method of
reproducing trees of particular strains.

Cocoa beans are fermented not just to remove the adhering pulp but also develop the distinctive flavour of cocoa. Correct fermentation and drying of cocoa is of vital importance and no subsequent processing of the bean will correct bad practice at this stage. A good flavour in the final cocoa or chocolate is related closely to good fermentation but if the drying after fermentation is delayed moulds will develop which will produce very unpleasant flavours.

After the pods are cut from the trees the beans with the adhering pulp are removed. Fermentation is carried out in a variety of ways but all depend on heaping a quantity of fresh beans with their pulp and allowing micro-organisms to ferment and to produce heat. Most beans are fermented in heaps. Better results are obtained by the use of fermentation boxes which give more even

Fermentation takes five to six days. Forastero beans take rather longer to ferment than Criollo. During the first day the adhering pulp becomes liquid and drains away. By the third day the mass of beans will have fairly even heated to 45 oC and will remain between this temperature and about 50 oC until fermentation is completed. It is necessary to occasionally stir the beans to aerate and to ensure that the beans initially on the outside of the heap are exposed to temperature conditions prevailing in the interior.

After fermentation the beans are placed in shallow trays to dry. In some growing areas where the main harvest coincides with the dry season, sun drying is adequate. The beans are dried by being spread out in the sun in layers a few centimetres thick. Sun drying trays may be movable on rails so that they can be pushed under canopies. Where the weather is less sunny, artificial driers are used. There are numerous types of dryers but an essential feature of all must be that any smoky products of combustion do not come in contact with the beans otherwise taints will appear in the final product. Some system involve the complete combustion of the fuel so that the flue gases can be used to dry the beans.

The beans are cleaned to remove the following extraneous matter: bean clusters and other large pieces using rocking and vibratory sieves; light material like dust, loose shell and fibre using a gentle upward air stream; iron particles using a magnetic separator and stones and heavy material using a fluidised bed with air aspiration to lift the coca beans. It may also be necessary to grade the coca beans according to size to ensure even roasting.

This is the most important stage in the development of flavour. This can be achieved by roasting the whole bean, the cocoa bean cotyledon or even the ground cocoa bean cotyledon (cocoa mass). For chocolate production the roasting temperatures are 100C to 104C. For cocoa powder production higher temperatures of 120 to 135C are used. There are many designs of roasters: both batch and continuous systems. The operation is controlled so that: the nib is heated to the required temperature without burning the shell or the cotyledon and producing undesirable flavours; the heat is applied evenly over a long period of up to 90 minutes to produce even roasting; the nib must not be contaminated with any combustion products from the fuel used and provision must be made for the escape of any volatile acids, water vapour and decomposition products of the nib. After roasting the beans are cooled quickly to prevent scorching

The shell will have been already loosened by the roasting. The beans are then lightly crushed with the object of preserving large pieces of shell and nib and avoiding the creation of small particles and dust. The older winnows used toothed rollers to break up the beans but modern machines are fitted with impact rollers. These consist of two hexagonal rollers running in the same direction that throw the beans against metal plates . The cocoa bean without its shell is known as a cocoa nib. The valuable part of the cocoa bean is the nib, the outer shell being a waste material of little value.

The crushed material is winnowed to remove the broken pieces of shell. This is achieved by sieving and blowing air through the material.

Alkalisation is a treatment that is sometimes used before and sometimes after grinding to modify the colour and flavour of the product. This was developed in the Netherlands in the last century and is sometimes known as Dutching. This involves soaking the nib or the cocoa mass in potassium or sodium carbonate. By varying the ratio of alkali to nib, a wide range of colours of cocoa powder can be produced. Complete nib penetration may take an hour. After alkalization the cocoa needs to be dried slowly.

The cocoa nib is ground into cocoa liquor (also known as unsweetened chocolate or cocoa
mass). The grinding process generates heat and the dry granular consistency of the nib is turned into a liquid as the high amount of fat contained in the nib melts.

Production of cocoa butter
Cocoa butter can be extracted using extrusion, expeller, or screw presses. Cocoa butter can be produced from whole beans, and mixtures of fine nib dusts, small nibs, and immature beans. Sometimes, whole nibs are pressed when the expeller cake is needed for the manufacture of coatings and therefore must be free from shell and as low as possible in cocoa butter content. When pressing whole beans, very light roasting or even no roasting is needed, and this gives the mild-flavoured cocoa butter that is desirable for milk chocolate.

Hydraulic presses
Hydraulic presses are used to produce cocoa powder and cocoa butter. Cocoa powder can be prepared by the hydraulic pressing of finely ground cocoa liquor. This can be achieved by compressing the liquor in heavy steel pots until a predetermined amount of cocoa butter is squeezed through very fine mesh screens or filters situated at each side of the pot. The pots, each with a capacity of about 18kg, are mounted in a horizontal frame and the cocoa liquor, heated to 93-102 oC, is pumped in at a pressure of up to 300lb per square inch. Cocoa butter immediately starts to be forced out through the filter screens and when the pots are full the pressure pump is turned off and a hydraulic ram set in motion. A pressure of up to 6000lb per square inch is then applied. Cocoa butter runs from the pots to a trough and eventually to a collecting pan situated on a balance. When the required amount of cocoa butter has been extracted the ram is reversed to the starting position, the press pots open up and the cocoa cakes from each pot are deposited on a conveyor and taken away for grinding. The extracted cocoa butter will need to be cleaned to remove non-fat solids in suspension, this can be done by filtration or centrifugally. Cocoa butter produced by this method is normally a very pale yellow
colour and it sets at a fairly hard fat showing crystal formation. Its melting point is 35 oC (Glossop, 1993).

Cocoa beans for expeller pressing are either very lightly roasted at low temperatures or not roasted at all. They may be just warmed sufficiently to loosen the shell. The beans are steamed before being fed to the press to soften them and help release the cocoa butter. Basically the expeller press consists of a tapering tube perforated along its length in which is situated a rotating screw. The cocoa beans are fed into the tube where they are subjected to shearing and increasing pressure by the action of the rotating screw. Cocoa butter is forced out through then perforations in the tube. The tube is terminated by an adjustable cone which gives a variable gap between the tube and the cone. Thick flakes of expeller cake are extruded through this gap. The extracted fat must be filtered or centrifugally separated to remove cocoa solids. Expeller cake contains 8-9 percent fat and this can be extracted using organic solvents.

Solvent extraction
Cocoa butter can be produced at the large scale by solvent extraction. It should be noted that it is unlikely that solvent-extracted cocoa butter would alone account for the added cocoa butter in a chocolate. Generally, it would be incorporated in a butter blend at the rate of 2 to 5 percent.

The production of cocoa powder
The cocoa powder is taken from the press as a cake. It is broken in a mill. The resulting powder is sieved through fine silk, nylon or wire mesh. Most cocoa powders are made from mass which has been treated with alkali with the purpose of controlling the colour of the powder and improving the dispersability.

The production of plain chocolate
To produce plain chocolate mass is mixed with sugar and sufficient cocoa butter to enable thechocolate to be moulded. The ratio of mass to sugar varies according to the national taste.

The mixture is ground to such a degree that the chocolate is smooth to the palate. At one time this was done by a lengthy process in melengeurs - heavy granite rollers in a revolving granite bed - but nowadays grinding is done in a series of rolls.

After grinding the chocolate is conched. The original conche was a tank shaped rather like a shell in which a roller is pushed to and fro on a granite bed. During the conching process which may last for several hours the chocolate is heated, this helps to drive off volatile acids, thereby reducing acidity when present in the raw bean, and the process finishes the development of flavour and makes the chocolate homogeneous.

After conching the chocolate has to be tempered before it is used for moulding. Tempering
involves cooling and reaching the right physical state for rapid setting after moulding.

The production of milk chocolate
Similar processes are involved in the manufacture of milk chocolate. The milk is added in various ways either in powder form to the mixture of mass, sugar and cocoa butter, or by condensing first with sugar, adding the mass and drying this mixture under vacuum. This product is called crumb and this is ground and conched in a similar manner to plain chocolate.

Further Information
Wood, Lass Pub. Longman 1989
Covers the areas of cultivation, pest & disease, and marketing
Small-scale Processing of Cocoa, Food Chain
Journal No23, ITDG, July 1998

Ang gabi ay isa sa pinakamahalagang halamang-ugat sa ating bansa. Sa katunayan, ito’y pangatlo sa hanay ng mga halamang ugat na itinatanim dito sa bansa. Karaniwan itong itinatanim sa likod-bahay at kadalasan sa maliit na sukat ng lupa na hindi hihigit sa isang ektarya.

adyang mahalaga ang halos lahat ng bahagi ng gabi. Ang dahon at tangkay nito ay naiibigan ng karamihan bilang gulay samantalang ang ibang parte ay itinatanim upang mapagkunan ng tubers.ang gabi ay nagagawa ring arina, para sa paggawa ng sopas, biskwit, tinapay, sari-saring inumin at puding. Ito’y madaling matunaw kaya inirerekomendang sangkap sa pagkain ng mga sanngol. Ito rin ay magagamit na pagkain ng alagaing-hayop.

Uri ng Lupa at Klima

Ang gabi ay maitatanim sa anumang uri ng lupa, ngunit higit na maganda ang tubo nito sa lupang buhaghag at malalim na water level.
Ang klimang tropical ang pinaka-angkop sa pagtatanim ng gabi. Ito’y maaring itanim sa dalawang regular na pagtatanim: pamamanahon basa (tag-ulan mula Oktubre hanggang Nobyembre) at tuyo (tag-araw Abril hanggang Mayo).

Mga Uri ng Gabi

Maraming uri ng gabi ang itinatanim sa kapatagan o mataas na lupa o kati. Maaring itanim ang corms at cormel 0 ang buong laman rhizomebago tabunan ng lupa. Ang naiwang dahon, tangkay at laman ay iginugulay.

Ang iba’t ibang uri ng gabi sa kapatagan at sa kati ay ang sumusunod:

Kapatagan Mataas na Lupa/Kati
Princesa Trinidad
Quezon White Calamba
Bicol Purple Kinusol
Ilocos Purple Batek Kalpao
Viscaya Green Batek Ngatong
Balatika Sibulanon
Kalpao Dashee

Paghahanda ng Pananim

Ang pananim na gabi ay tinatawag na setts. Ito ay inihahanda mula sa suckers. Ito ay nagmumula sa isa hanggang dalawang sentimetro sa itaas na bahagi ng parent corm at unang 15-25 sentimetro ng tangkay.

Paghahanda sa Lupa

Araruhin at suyurin ang bukid ng tatlo hanggang apat ng ulit upang mabuwag at mapatag ang tingkal na lupa.
Ihanda ang tudling at tudnos para sa setts isang araw bago magtanim.


Sa kati o mataas na lupa, inirereklamo ang paggamit ng asarol sa itak sa paghukay ng taniman. Itanim ang setts sa butas na may lalim na 8-15 sentimetro.
Kailangang magkaroon ng sapat na tubig habang tumutubo ang gabi. lagyan ng alip-ip pagkatapos magtanim. Ito’y makaktulong upang mabawasan ang pagtubo ng damo at mapanatili ang halumigmig. Ang mga tuyong dahon, dayami, dahong ng niyog, at saging ay maaring gamiting alip-ip o “mulch”.

Paglilinang at paggagamas

Ang pagsugpo ng damo ay isang malaking suliranin sa kataasan kaysa sa kapatagan. Ang paglilinang ay isa sa paraan ng pagpigil sa pagtubo ng damo. Ang halinhinan o salitan na pagtatabon hilling up at pagbubungkal na palayo sa tudling off-baring ay isa sa pamamaraan upang masupil ang pagtubo ng tamo. Ang unang pagbubungkal at pagtatabon ay ginagawa tatlo hanggang apat na linggo pagkatapos magtanim.


Maganda ang tubo ng gabi kapag ina-abonohan ng Nitrogen. Tatlumpung kilo bawat ektarya ang kinakailangan sa pangkataasan at gayundin sa kapatagan.
Ang paggamit ng kompost ay mainam rin na pamamaraan. Ihalong mabuti sa lupa ang kompost habang inihahanda ang taniman.
Hayaang mabulok nang husto ang kompost, sa loob ng isa hanggang dalawang linggo bago magsimulang magtanim.

Pagkontrol sa Peste at Sakit

1.Iwasang magtanim ng gabi nang dikit-dikit lalo na sa malalim na lugar.
2.Ugaliin ang pag-iiba-iba ng tanim 0 crop rotation .
3.Alisin at Sunugin ang mga sirang dahon o ang mga dahon na apektado ng peste/sakit lalo simula pa lamang naa-apektuhan ng peste/sakit.
4.Gamitin sa pagtatanim ang mga matatambok na setts
5.Gamitin ang matibay na uri ng gabi sa pagtatanim.

# Para sa karagdagan kaalaman sa pag-sugpo sa mga kulisap at sakit na namiminsala sa gabi , sumangguni sa farm management technologist o sa taggapan ng Bureau of Plant Industry (BPI) at Fertilizers andPesticides Authority (FPA) sa inyong lugar.


Ang gabi ay maari nang anihin kapag ang dahon ay naninilaw na. Ang gabing itinanim sa kataasan ay gumugulang mula 7-11 buwan matapos maitanim. Anihin ang gabi sa pamamagitan ng itak, asarol, at araro . ingatan na huwag masugatan ang laman o “tubers”. Alisin ang nakakapit na lupa at pinong ugat. Putulin ang dahon ng gabi at mag-iwan lamang ng dalawang sentimetro mula sa corms. Ihiwalay ang sugatang corms</> para hindi mahawa ang iba.


# Huwaghuhugasan ang gabi.
# ibukod ang laman o corms at piliin bago ilagay sa naaangkop na lalagyan.
# ilagay ang gabi sa kaing o gumawa ng hukay na malalim at ilagay ang inanidito. Kapag ito ay inimak sa hukay, ay tumatagal ng anim haggang sampung buwan luwag lamang itong mauulanan.

Philippine Department of Agriculture


Ampalaya, amargoso or bitter gourd (Momordica Charantia Linn) is one of the most important commercial and backyard fruit vegetables in the country today. It has both nutritive and medicinal use. The fruit and leaves of which are used as vegetable and the latter are further used as a laxative for new born babies while the stem and roots as antidotes for fever. They are rich in calcium, phosphorus, iron, carbohydrates and vitamin B. It is also known to cure diabetes, arthritis, rheumatism, asthma, warts, and ulcer.

The commercial cultivation of the crop is concentrated to Region II and IV. Generally two types are being grown the Sta. Rita type, which is long, dark green and less warty and the Pinakbet type which is short and warty and much bitter in flavor.


 Maturity (DAP)*
Sta. Rita strains
Sta. Isabel
Jade star (A, L, XL)
 F1 hybrids
 F1 hybrids
Million Green
 F1 hybrids
 F1 hybrids

* Days after planting

Climatic and Soil Requirement

Ampalaya thrives well in all types of climates but high yield can be obtained during the cooler months because of more flower setting and bigger fruits. It grows in low elevation area anytime of the year. The crops grow well in any types of soil with a pH of 5.5-6.5. Higher yield however is attained on sandy loam soil. Soil analysis is a must for commercial planting.

Land Preparation

A good land preparation is very important in ampalaya culture. The field should be well prepared, plowed and harrowed twice to remove weeds and other plant debris in the field. Furrows are then made 3 meter apart. Organic fertilizer is applied at the rate of 5 tons per hectare during land preparation or a week before planting.

Plastic Mulching

An improved technology in the Philippines for ampalaya production is the use of plastic mulch to cover the beds. Planting holes are bored into the plastic sheet base on the planting distance. It offers number of advantage, its control weeds, preserve soil moisture, prevent soil erosion and leaching of fertilizers and reflect light, serving as repellant to insect which hide under the leaves.

To use the plastic mulch, stretch it over the planting beds, with edges held down by thin bamboo slats, staple well into the soil every 20 cm. Punch holes at 50 cm between plants in the row and 3 meters between rows.


Ampalaya can be direct seeded or transplanted. Direct seeding is most common, a hectare of production area requires 2.5 to 3.0 kilograms of seeds, Seeds are soak in water overnight or wrap in cheesecloth to facilitate water absorption. Seeds are planted the following day or as the radicle break. Transplanting can also be done specially when the seeds are scarce and during off-season planting. Seeds are planted in small plastic bags (1 seed/bag with soil mixture of 1:1 garden soil and sand/compost/carbonized rice hull) and transplanted to the field when the vine starts to grow. Pre- germinated seeds result in good seedling and an even crop establishment.

Time of Planting

Early planting in some areas is usually done during the months of October to December and the late planting are during the month of January to February.

Rate of Planting

The rate and distance of planting use by most farmers is three meters between furrows and 0.5 meters between hills with 3 seeds line at 4 inches apart. Other recommended spacing are: 30 m x 30 m with 1 plant/hill and 2.0 m x 0.5 m with 2 plants/hill.


Bitter gourd or ampalaya grows best with overhead (balag type) trellis about 6 ft high. A lining of bamboo poles with abaca twine as lateral supports is done three weeks after germination. Lateral support of bamboo poles are spaced three meters between furrows and two meters between hills and the side support is place after the bamboo poles are constructed. The horizontal support of abaca twine is place before the vine reaches the top with a 6-inch mesh.

Abaca twine is use as a lateral and horizontal support because it does not absorb too much heat however it is not reusable for the next cropping season.

For plantation, the use of big wooden posts (kakawate or ipil-ipil) are dug into the soil about 1.5 to 2 ft at the four corners of the field and the posts are interconnected with G.I. wire stronger enough as main frame. The side support is used to prevent breaking down of the trellis.

Vine Training and Pruning

Train the vines on the vertical trellis regularly by tying the vines to the trellis. Lateral shoot/vine may be pruned every 4-5 days, leaving only the main stem. Initial pruning should be done one month after planting or when lateral vines appeared. Remove all lateral vines from ground level up to the top of the trellis and all ineffective lateral vines above the trellis at 15 to 20 days interval.

Remove all female flowers below the overhead trellis. Allow branching and fruiting on the overhead trellis. Fruits may also be allowed to form just above the 10th node.

Water and Weeding Management

Ampalaya is a plant that requires an abundant supply of moisture for vegetative and reproductive development to maintain a good crop stand in the dry season. Furrow irrigation is done twice a week during vegetative stage and once a week during the reproductive stage or before each application of fertilizer. Weeding is done when need arises.


The use of organic fertilizer such as manure or compost about 5 to 10 tons per hectare with inorganic fertilizer is recommended. Apply basal fertilizer at about 25 grams/hill of complete fertilizer (14-14-14) or 5 bags per hectare. During dry season, sidedress 10-20 grams/hill of (urea 46-0-0) and muriate of potash (0-0-60) once a month. However during wet season, side dress 5-10 grams/hill of urea and muriate of potash every week.

Pests and Diseases Control

Powdery Mildew- It is cause by a fungus that appears as white powdery growth on leaves. Crown leaves are affected first and may wither and die. The fungus may be introduced on greenhouse grown plants or wind from areas infected with the diseases. Disease development is favor by high temperature.

Downy Mildew - A irregular shaped yellowish to brown spots appears on upper side of the leaves, usually at the center of plants. Under moist condition, a purplish mildew develops on the underside of the leaf spots. Leaves die as spots increase it size. Spread is rapid from the crown toward new growth. Moist condition favors the development of the disease.

Bacterial Wilt -The disease is characterized initially by wilting and drying of individual leaves, which also exhibit cucumber beetle injury. Later, leaves on one or more laterals or entire plants wilts. Wilted parts may appear to recover at night, but they wilt on successive sunny days and finally die.

Several kinds of leaf diseases attack the plant and can cause yield reduction. Most often, the old leaves are affected; spraying of Fungicide is a preventive measure. You can consult your local inputs dealer on how and what fungicide to use. However crop rotation, field sanitation, and the use of resistant varieties is also highly recommended.

Fruitfly - The fruitfly is one of the major insect pests of ampalaya. Adults lay it eggs on the young fruits. The eggs later hatch into small worms that starts feeding inside the fruits. Symptoms are deformed fruits, fruits with holes that turn orange or yellow prematurely. The insect can be control by removing all damage fruits from the field. Spray only after the removal of the damage fruits with insecticides recommended by your pesticide dealer. Wrapping young fruits with newspaper or plastic bags prevent the fruit fly from laying eggs on the fruits. Wrapping reduce the use of pesticides.

Thrips - it is a very small crawling insect on that stays on the lower side of the leaves. It is recommended to spray during nighttime 2 t0 3 consecutive nights if infestation is severed. This was found to be very effective time to spray. The pest hides during daytime and cannot be control using contact insecticides. Neighboring plantation should also be sprayed at the same time. Consult your input dealer on what pesticides to use in controlling this pest.


Harvest when the fruits are green. Harvesting starts 45 to 50 days after seedling. It can be done twice a week. Harvest early in the morning to protect harvested fruits against rain, sun, and mechanical damage. Sort fruits according to marketable standards, and remove damage fruits. Pack in plastic or bamboo crates line with newspaper or bamboo leaves. Fruits can be stored for 2-3 days under this condition.

Cost and Return Analysis Per Hectare

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 Amount/Unit (P)
 Total Amount (P)
Land preparation
A. Labor cost (200/MD)
Harrowing (2x)
Manure application
Fertilizer application
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Vine training/pruning
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B. Materials
Animal manure
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Bamboo post 2 uses
GI wire 4 uses
Abaca twine
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Fuel and oil
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II. Fixed Cost
Land rentals
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Scythe (2 yrs)
Hoe (3 yrs)
Knapsack sprayer (5 yrs)
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Total Cost
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Marketable yield of 10 to 15 tons hectare at P15 per kilogram
Gross Income at 15 tons/hectare
Total Cost of Production
Net Income

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Ampalaya Growing Guide, Agriculture Monthly Magazine. April 2001
Ampalaya Production Guide, Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forest and Natural Resources. Department of Science and Technology. Information Bulletin No. 156 / 2000
Estimated Cost and Return of Production of Fresh Vegetable for 2001. Bureau of Plant Industry. Crop Production division.
M.E.C. Reyes. B.H. Gildemacher and G.J Jansen. PROSEA Vegetables. Plant Resources of Southeast Asia. Siemonsma J.S. and Kasem Piluek (Editors) Bogor Indonesia. 1994. pp 206-210
TECSON, AMELITA B., D.C. Reyes and R.T. Donato. 1994. The effect of Pruning on the Production of Marketable Fruits of Ampalaya and Upo. The Philippine Journal of Plant Industry. Vol. 59., No. 3. Bureau of Plant Industry, Manila. pp 29-36

A Sip of Excellence

“Coffee is the source of happiness and wit,” said King Louis XIV who after experiencing coffee’s excellent taste and distinctive aroma began to recognize the value of it.

A sip of coffee reminisces significant events which shaped many a nation’s history. It has chronicled historical records that date back to as far as 1200 A.D. when coffee became a very important crop in the economy of many nations.

In the Philippines, the coffee industry began in 1740 during the Spanish regime. It is considered one of the high-value crops in the local and foreign markets. Coffee is among the top ten agricultural crops in terms of value.

Coffee registered a total production of 123,934 metric tons valued at P6,818.84 million in 1995. Today, we are exporting to ICO and non-ICO member countries which include Japan, Singapore, West Germany, Netherlands, Malaysia, Muscat Oman, United Arab Emirates, Pakistan and U.S.A. These countries alone account for 97 percent of the total Philippine coffee export.


Coffee trees require a rich, moist loose, well-drained soil best composed of organic matter, decomposed mold, and disintegrated volcanic rock; a well-distributed rainfall of about 40 to 70 inches annually with peak wet season’ high humidity; seven hours of sunshine daily; and plenty of mist and moderate winds.

Coffee trees vary greatly in sizes from dwarf trees to thick-trunked forest giants twenty feet or more in tropic. Generally they are restricted to areas with a medium average annual temperature of 70oF, not lower than 55oF and much above 80oF.



Arabica is characterized by wavy leaf margin, light green leaf color, thin leaves, pulp and parchment, known as ” kapeng tagalog.” Yields 500-1,000 kg of clean dry coffee beans per hectare. It could be grown productively in cooler places with an elevation ranging from 1,200 to 1,800 meters above sea level.

Robusta is characterized by large umbrella shaped growth with thinner leaves which have more wavy margins. The berries are borne in heavy cluster with the pulp and parchment. Yields 1,200 kg of clean dry coffee beans per hectare. It could be grown in areas with an elevation ranging from 600 to 1,200 meters above sea level.

Excelsa has wide leaves that are thicker than Robusta but thinner and smoother and more rounded than Liberica with smooth edge. Young leaves are usually shiny with bronze violet color. The berries are borne in heavy cluster, varying in size and usually bigger than Arabica but smaller than Liberica. Pulp and parchment are thicker than the Leberica. Yields 1,000 kg of clean dry coffee bean per hectare. It could be grown from sea level to 600 meters above sea level.

Liberica is locally known as “kapeng barako” because it produces the biggest berry. It is rounded and are borne signly or in small clusters. Has thicker leaves than Excelsa and twice as long as Arabica. The pulp is thick and the parchment is more woody. It also characterized a very strong pharmocopical taste and flavor. It is tolerant to drought and grows in a wider type of soil. Yields 1,000 kg. Of clan dry coffee beans per hectare.


Seed Preparation

* Coffee is grown from seeds;
* Gather seeds from disease and pest-free, high yielding trees;
* Grow coffee plants in the nursery to produce better seedlings. They nursery be located in the plantation or nearby and accessible to water supply;
* Three-fourth kg (i.e. 750 gm) of quality seeds is enough to plant a hectare;
* A 50% allowance of seeds must be considered for ungerminated seeds, poor seedlings and for replanting;
* Select viable seeds, stir berries in a bucket of water and remove floaters. Those that sink are the good ones;
* Remove pulp by hand or pulping machine, then soak beans in water for 24 hours to hasten the removal of mucilage;

* Wash beans and discard floaters. Air dry in well-ventilated room for least 4 days;
* Keep dried parchment in cool dry place or mix with charcoal to preserve its viability;
* Germination bed must be 1 meter wide and of convenient length. To avoid flooding, raise bed 15 cm from ground level;

* A 1 x 20 m plot can accommodate one ganta of seeds;
* Sow seeds on shallow rows at ¾ inch deep and cover with fine soil;
* Water the seedbed regularly but not too wet and partially shade plants from sunlight;

* This out and prick seedlings (transplant to another seedbed/plastic bags) or when 2-3 pairs of leaves have developed.

Vegetable Propagation

* Coffee can also be propagated asexually;
* Clone is used for coffee propagation. It is a part of a plant that is made to reproduce an offspring which carries all the qualities of its parents.
* Split lengthwise into two halves of a fingersized vertical shoot of about one foot long with 4-6 nodes to produce a clone. Partially cut leaves before splitting;
* Set modal cutting in germination box 1×2 inches apart and 1 inch deep, then place boxes in germination chamber. Nodal cuttings will produce roots and shoots within 45 days;
* Prick seedlings into individual plastic bags with soil.
Full-grown seedling with 4-6 pairs of leaves could be attained within 6-8 months;
* Coffee plants raised from nodal cuttings bear fruits 18 months after transplanting, earlier than plants grown from seeds.

Establishment of Plantation

Intensive clearing is necessary for newly opened areas (forest area). Plow and harrow twice open field to check weed growth. Mark places where holes are to be dug. Recommended spacing are as follows:

Variety: ARABICA
Distance in Meters
3 x 1 to 3 x 2 m
2 x 2 x 2 x 3 m double row

Variety: ROBUSTA
Distance in Meters
3 x 1.5 to 3 x 3m
2 x 2 x 2 x 4m double row

Variety: Liberica & Excelsa
Distance in Meters
4 x 5 to 5 x 5.5m


Coffee seedlings are ready for transplant when 6 pairs of leaves have been fully developed and with no lateral branches yet. Dig holes and transplant in the field at the start of the rainy season. This will give sufficient time for young plants to establish roots before dry season sets in. Dig hole wide and deep enough to accommodate ball of earth with roots intact. Return topsoil in the hole, then add tablespoons phosporous fertilizer, and mix thoroughly.


The general recommendation for non-bearing trees in the absence of soil and tissue analysis, is an equal amount of NPK and ammonium sulfate or urea from 250-300 grams per tree per year; and for bearing trees (7 years and above) 1 kilo of 14-14 per tree per year plus ures sidedressed at the rate of 300 grams per tree per year.

Non-bearing trees (1-3 years old) make shallow canal furrow 5 cm deep around the plant; place recommended fertilizer in continuous band and cover with soil.

Bearing trees (7 years old)-localized placement is recommended for sloping land. Apply fertilizer in holes or trenches made around trees between outside of the crown and onehalf meter from the base. Broadcast fertilizer 0.5m for level land.


Removal of unnecessary branches (excess, old and dead branches) and undesirable sprouts. Pruning regulates the height of the plants, facilitates harvesting and other field operations, promotes better aeration and light penetration. This is best done before general flowering or after harvest.

Common Pests and Control

Coffee Berry Borer most destructive and hardest to control. Attacks all stages of fruit after berries become mungo-size. Infested young berries turn from normal green color to yellow orange and shortly afterwards, fruit falls prematurely. Presence of empty or partially filled fruits underneath tree is a sure sign of infestation.

Coffee Leaf folder larvae feed on leaves and sometime attack flowers and fruits. Adult is a small moth with light brown forewings. The eggs are laid in clusters on leaves. Development period is 5-6 weeks.

Control: Collect and destroy infested berries before and after harvest. Pick up all berries, including those that fall on the ground, to eliminate breeding and feeding sites of insects. Spray Endosulfan at recommended rates at 14 to 21 days interval or 4 to 5 times spraying during fruiting season. The first spraying should be done when the berries attain the size of a mungbean seed.

Common Diseases and Control

Coffee Rust the most prevalent and destructive disease of coffee, Small, yellowish spots appear on lower surface of leaves; as spots enlarge, powdery yellow to orange spores are produced. Affected leaves drop and tree may die. To prevent, use resistant strains, spray susceptible varieties with copper fungicides at 2-3 week intervals at start of heavy rains.

Die-Back is characterized by drying of branches and twigs from to and downwards. Appearance of spots with concentric lines on both surfaces of seedlings, twigs, and berries. If severe affected, leaves fall, twig and branches dry. To control, maintain vigor of trees by fertilizing with the right kind and amount of nutrients at proper time; regulate plant growth to prevent overbearing by pruning and/or shade.


Maturity of berries is 6 to 8 months after blooming but varies on the environmental factors from region to region. In Mindanao, Arabica flower in January to May and berries are harvested in August to December. In Luzon, coffee trees bloom just after the first heavy rains in May and June, Arabica and Robusta berries are harvested in late December to March; Excelsa and Liberica later.

Individually pick berries (i.e priming) to avoid presence of pedicels. For quality beans, harvest only matured berries (i.e. berries turn red from its ground color.)

Philippine Department of Agriculture


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