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Author Topic: Crops and Vegetables Planting Guide:  (Read 80737 times)
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mikey
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« on: March 22, 2008, 01:50:45 PM »

Peanuts can be grown and made to bear fruit the whole year. A planter can harvest two times or more a year if this cultivation is good and the soil is fertile. Because there is always a big demand for peanuts, the planter is sure to earn. Among legumes, peanut is highest in minerals and in Vitamin B content, and has 26% protein. Every gram of peanut contains 5.4 calories. It is said that a half kilo of peanuts, more or less, equals one-half kilo of milk or three eggs of moderate size. And even if it brings high calories, it has no cholesterol.

Soil and climate - Peanuts like loose, fertilizer sandy soil or porous with good permeability (that is, it does not retain water), warm climate, and an even rainfall throughout the year.

Planting - Plant peanuts in May and June if the season is rainy and between October and November if the season is dry. Summer is more favorable because in rainy weather, peanut leaves and branches are abundant, but the fruits are few. If there is irrigation, peanuts should be planted in February to be able to harvest big and plentiful grains. Peanuts may be planted along with other crops, for instance, watermelon.

Land Preparation

1. Plow the field two times at two weeks interval. Harrow the field after plowing.
2. If soil drainage is not good, plant the peanut on hills.
3. Dig trenches about 50-60 cm apart if the variety of peanut is bunchy, and 70-80 cm apart if the variety spreads. If other crops will be planted together with the peanuts, make the distance one meter apart.
4. Before planting, apply rhizobium on the peanut grains to ensure that these will grow nodules that produce nitrogen in the roots. This is available at the Bureau of Soils or Bureau of Plant Industry. In a container, wet the peanut grains with water and pour the rhizobium on them. Mix well to ensure that every grain gets rhizobium. Or, add enough water to make it pasty and mix well the grains in it. If the place for planting had been planted to peanuts also before, or plants that have been applied with rhizobium in the past three years, it is not necessary to put rhizobium in the peanuts. Such plants are mongo, soybeans, and other legumes.
5. Plant the grains immediately. Plant them in hills about 2-3 grains in each hole, 20 cm apart. A hectare of land would accommodate about 90-125 kilos seeds.
6. Apply adequate fertilizer before planting the peanuts. This responds better to fertilizer during rainy season than during dry season. Put initial nitrogen fertilizer, 25-30 kilos per hectare before planting. But if the soil is poor and shows lack of potassium and phosphorus, experts advise to apply about four (4) bags (200 kg) of 14-14-14 before planting peanuts. Apply the fertilizer about 5 cm away from the rows of seeds at about 2-1/2 cm deep. Cover with 2-3 cm soil so that this will not disturb the seedlings growth.
7. Peanuts grains need nitrogen fertilizer, especially if it is intended to be fodder (for animals). Peanuts needs phosphorus, especially if the soil is sandy. Potassium brings about increase in grains and their oil content. The application of potassium must be deep but reachable to the peanut roots. If this is shallow, the grains will not get enough calcium, so these will not grow good grains. To make the grains full, the soil should have enough calcium. So, apply lime or dolomex in the amount advised by the agriculturist.
8. If peanut is planted in October, it will not need irrigation until December. But if this will be planted in February, it should be watered 3 or 4 times. If the soil is very dry before planting time, irrigate before planting, or water soon after planting to hasten germination. Water again when the grains begin to form.
9. When irrigating, wet the soil until about 30 cm deep. 10.Peanuts germinate in 15 days after planting. Three weeks after germination, see if the application of rhizobium has been effective. Pull up a plant, cut (dissect) the grain at the root. If the grain is pinkish, the rhizobium was effective. If it is pale or gray, it did not take effect. If the plant has no nodules in the biggest root but the plant grows well, the soil has adequate nitrogen. If the soil lacks nitrogen but the roots at the side instead has nodules, the rhizobium took effect although not sufficiently.

Thus, nitrogen fertilizer is necessary while preparing the soil for planting. If still, the peanuts do not bear good grains, then the soil is not for peanuts.

Control for pests and diseases

1. Weeds — apply herbicides 2-3 weeks before planting to keep weeds from growing. Culture the soil, but stop when the plants begin to flower, lest the grains that are starting to develop get hurt.

2. Pests and diseases attack peanuts too, like any other plant. During humid and hot climate, damage is caused, such as:

a) leaves and sometimes stalk — reddish brown or black spots

Control: apply:
- Fungitox — 1-2 spoonfuls in 5 gallons water or
- Benlate — ½ teaspoon in one gal water

b) leaves — dark orange or brown blisters under the leaves at the latter part of growth. This is the sign of peanut rust.

Control: Dithane M-45 — 2 teaspoons for every gal of water
- Plant vax — ½ teaspoons for every gal of water
- Spray 3 times at the time of growth, with 10-14 days interval

c) wilting of leaves, stalk and sometimes the whole plant.

Control: Spray with Vitigran Blue 35 WP — 3 tablespoons in 5 gal at first sign of infection or before it sets. Repeat 1-2 weeks between, remove diseased parts.

d) Rosete — disease spread by aphids. Small round yellow spot, leaves curls up at the end.

The next set of leaves have colorless stripes. When this becomes serious, the plant stops growing and leaves form in clusters like roses. The disease enters the grains which starts its spread in the field. To avoid, do not use seeds from diseased plants. Consult technicians from BAEX or the Bureau of Plant Industry for problems like this.

Harvesting

Peanuts mature within four months after planting. It is ready for harvest when the leaves wilt and turn yellow if planted in summer. This is also known if the shell of the peanut is hard. Pull up about ten plants, open and see the shell of the grain. If there are dark streaks or roots inside the shell, the peanut is ready for harvest. If the peanut is not mature, the shell is shriveled. If it is over matured, this roots in the soil, or starts to germinate.

1. Pull up the plants with the help of a spade or fork, or plow the two sides of the rows before pulling them up. Stack up the harvest in a dry place and air the peanuts.
2. Newly harvested peanuts contain 50-55% water. If this will be dried in the sun, dry them until the humidity is about 12%. If it will be stored in a closed container, dry until 6-8% humidity.
3. Carefully remove the kernels from the shell do not allow them to be broken or their seed cover by bruised. This will be the start of rotting.

It is better to store peanuts with their shell to avoid pest destruction. If watermelon is planted together with the peanuts, this will be harvested earlier by one month. But it will go on bearing fruit after the first harvest. The body of the watermelon plant will remain in the field until the peanuts are harvested.

source: http://www.elgu2.ncc.gov.ph

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mikey
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« Reply #1 on: March 22, 2008, 01:54:28 PM »

Peanuts can be grown and made to bear fruit the whole year. A planter can harvest two times or more a year if this cultivation is good and the soil is fertile. Because there is always a big demand for peanuts, the planter is sure to earn. Among legumes, peanut is highest in minerals and in Vitamin B content, and has 26% protein. Every gram of peanut contains 5.4 calories. It is said that a half kilo of peanuts, more or less, equals one-half kilo of milk or three eggs of moderate size. And even if it brings high calories, it has no cholesterol.

Soil and climate - Peanuts like loose, fertilizer sandy soil or porous with good permeability (that is, it does not retain water), warm climate, and an even rainfall throughout the year.

Planting - Plant peanuts in May and June if the season is rainy and between October and November if the season is dry. Summer is more favorable because in rainy weather, peanut leaves and branches are abundant, but the fruits are few. If there is irrigation, peanuts should be planted in February to be able to harvest big and plentiful grains. Peanuts may be planted along with other crops, for instance, watermelon.

Land Preparation

1. Plow the field two times at two weeks interval. Harrow the field after plowing.
2. If soil drainage is not good, plant the peanut on hills.
3. Dig trenches about 50-60 cm apart if the variety of peanut is bunchy, and 70-80 cm apart if the variety spreads. If other crops will be planted together with the peanuts, make the distance one meter apart.
4. Before planting, apply rhizobium on the peanut grains to ensure that these will grow nodules that produce nitrogen in the roots. This is available at the Bureau of Soils or Bureau of Plant Industry. In a container, wet the peanut grains with water and pour the rhizobium on them. Mix well to ensure that every grain gets rhizobium. Or, add enough water to make it pasty and mix well the grains in it. If the place for planting had been planted to peanuts also before, or plants that have been applied with rhizobium in the past three years, it is not necessary to put rhizobium in the peanuts. Such plants are mongo, soybeans, and other legumes.
5. Plant the grains immediately. Plant them in hills about 2-3 grains in each hole, 20 cm apart. A hectare of land would accommodate about 90-125 kilos seeds.
6. Apply adequate fertilizer before planting the peanuts. This responds better to fertilizer during rainy season than during dry season. Put initial nitrogen fertilizer, 25-30 kilos per hectare before planting. But if the soil is poor and shows lack of potassium and phosphorus, experts advise to apply about four (4) bags (200 kg) of 14-14-14 before planting peanuts. Apply the fertilizer about 5 cm away from the rows of seeds at about 2-1/2 cm deep. Cover with 2-3 cm soil so that this will not disturb the seedlings growth.
7. Peanuts grains need nitrogen fertilizer, especially if it is intended to be fodder (for animals). Peanuts needs phosphorus, especially if the soil is sandy. Potassium brings about increase in grains and their oil content. The application of potassium must be deep but reachable to the peanut roots. If this is shallow, the grains will not get enough calcium, so these will not grow good grains. To make the grains full, the soil should have enough calcium. So, apply lime or dolomex in the amount advised by the agriculturist.
8. If peanut is planted in October, it will not need irrigation until December. But if this will be planted in February, it should be watered 3 or 4 times. If the soil is very dry before planting time, irrigate before planting, or water soon after planting to hasten germination. Water again when the grains begin to form.
9. When irrigating, wet the soil until about 30 cm deep. 10.Peanuts germinate in 15 days after planting. Three weeks after germination, see if the application of rhizobium has been effective. Pull up a plant, cut (dissect) the grain at the root. If the grain is pinkish, the rhizobium was effective. If it is pale or gray, it did not take effect. If the plant has no nodules in the biggest root but the plant grows well, the soil has adequate nitrogen. If the soil lacks nitrogen but the roots at the side instead has nodules, the rhizobium took effect although not sufficiently.

Thus, nitrogen fertilizer is necessary while preparing the soil for planting. If still, the peanuts do not bear good grains, then the soil is not for peanuts.

Control for pests and diseases

1. Weeds — apply herbicides 2-3 weeks before planting to keep weeds from growing. Culture the soil, but stop when the plants begin to flower, lest the grains that are starting to develop get hurt.

2. Pests and diseases attack peanuts too, like any other plant. During humid and hot climate, damage is caused, such as:

a) leaves and sometimes stalk — reddish brown or black spots

Control: apply:
- Fungitox — 1-2 spoonfuls in 5 gallons water or
- Benlate — ½ teaspoon in one gal water

b) leaves — dark orange or brown blisters under the leaves at the latter part of growth. This is the sign of peanut rust.

Control: Dithane M-45 — 2 teaspoons for every gal of water
- Plant vax — ½ teaspoons for every gal of water
- Spray 3 times at the time of growth, with 10-14 days interval

c) wilting of leaves, stalk and sometimes the whole plant.

Control: Spray with Vitigran Blue 35 WP — 3 tablespoons in 5 gal at first sign of infection or before it sets. Repeat 1-2 weeks between, remove diseased parts.

d) Rosete — disease spread by aphids. Small round yellow spot, leaves curls up at the end.

The next set of leaves have colorless stripes. When this becomes serious, the plant stops growing and leaves form in clusters like roses. The disease enters the grains which starts its spread in the field. To avoid, do not use seeds from diseased plants. Consult technicians from BAEX or the Bureau of Plant Industry for problems like this.

Harvesting

Peanuts mature within four months after planting. It is ready for harvest when the leaves wilt and turn yellow if planted in summer. This is also known if the shell of the peanut is hard. Pull up about ten plants, open and see the shell of the grain. If there are dark streaks or roots inside the shell, the peanut is ready for harvest. If the peanut is not mature, the shell is shriveled. If it is over matured, this roots in the soil, or starts to germinate.

1. Pull up the plants with the help of a spade or fork, or plow the two sides of the rows before pulling them up. Stack up the harvest in a dry place and air the peanuts.
2. Newly harvested peanuts contain 50-55% water. If this will be dried in the sun, dry them until the humidity is about 12%. If it will be stored in a closed container, dry until 6-8% humidity.
3. Carefully remove the kernels from the shell do not allow them to be broken or their seed cover by bruised. This will be the start of rotting.

It is better to store peanuts with their shell to avoid pest destruction. If watermelon is planted together with the peanuts, this will be harvested earlier by one month. But it will go on bearing fruit after the first harvest. The body of the watermelon plant will remain in the field until the peanuts are harvested.

source: http://www.elgu2.ncc.gov.ph

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mikey
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« Reply #2 on: March 22, 2008, 01:56:26 PM »

Planting pepper is a lifetime livelihood if well developed. If the soil is good and care is good, the quality of the harvest is likewise good and so commands a good price in the market. When harvest is poor, even the stems of this plant, when dried, can also be used and sold including the chaff when powdered.

Although these are not so strong in taste as the fruit itself, they are nevertheless sought because of the aroma they give to the food. So, even the powdered pulp gets sold.

Planting

1. Plant materials in pepper consist of the stem with 3 nodes. Separate these from the mother plant at the beginning of the rainy season, and plant in the nursery side by side for growing roots in a rooting bed.
2. The bed for growing these must be in the shade and elevated, surrounded by hollow blocks.
3. Make the bed three layers of soil so as to ensure good drainage such as:
* river sand on top — 1 foot thick
* small pebbles in the second layer
* bigger stones at the bottom
4. Water a little — once in the morning and one in the afternoon. Cover with a plastic sheet.
5. In one month, roots will grow about an inch at the nodes.
6. This can now be transferred to plastic bags with holes at the bottom, half filled with sand and the other half with loose soil. When transplanting, thrust a stick into the plastic bag, and in its hole, put in the plant.
7. In 2-3 months when there are about 4-5 new growths (shoots) in the upper part of the plant, it can now be transferred in the fields.
8. Black pepper is a climbing plant, so it needs a trellis or tree to climb. The best is the madre cacao (kakawate). Its long branches are cut like poles and thrust into the ground, 2-3 m apart, in April and May. These branches will grow leaves and branches in the first rain in June. Change the branch that does not grow.
9. Plant two seedlings of pepper at the base of every pole. Remove them from the plastic bag and plant one feet away from the kakawate pole. Tie the stem to the pole to help it climb. In one week, the roots of the pepper will adhere to the pole and the plant will climb by itself.

Maintenance/Care of the Pepper Plant

1. Always remove weeds around the plant. Apply fertilizer about 2 ft. away from the plant; it is much better if this is mixed with the soil. Put the fertilizer at the beginning of the rains in June: 1 kilo of 14-14-14 or 16-16-16, and ½ kilo in October. Without chemical fertilizer, the proper grains will not grow big and heavy. (See section on improvement/maintenance of plants).
2. Always prune the branches of the kakawate to allow sufficient sunshine on the pepper plant (but not so much pruning as to destroy the tree).

It is in the rainy season that pruning should be done after when the branches and leaves grow fast. Pruning is done about 5-6 times a year, or every 1-1/2 months during the rainy season. Control also the height of the kakawate (madre de cacao) because it is difficult to harvest pepper from a very high post, which should not be beyond 10 feet.

In Indonesia and Malaysia, they use posts made from strong wood that are treated against termites to make them last long. In this way, no pruning will be necessary.

Pests and Diseases of the Pepper - Two plant diseases afflict pepper, usually those whose soil has poor drainage. Pepper does not like soil that retains water, and may be the cause of its death. Other than these, pepper is resistant to pests and diseases, so pesticides are not necessary.

Harvesting

In 2 years, pepper bears fruit. Its fist fruits are not so plentiful, but in its 3rd year, harvest ranges from ½ to one kilo per tree. On its 4th year, each plant can give one to one and a half kilo dried pepper.

1. The bunches of grains are harvested when these turn yellow. They do not ripen at the same time. It takes 3 weeks to one month to harvest them.
2. The harvested pepper is spread on cement to dry like palay or coffee. In good weather, this dries in 3 days. In rainy weather, this can be left alone even up to 5 days, but let it dry by itself when the rain stops. It will be worse to gather them and put them in a container where the grains will heat up, which hastens its rot.
3. Threshing - To separate the pulp and foreign matters from the grains, it is better to use a machine for the purpose because the machine does faster work with less cost for labor.
4. Winnowing is done normally in which the immature grain and light ones separate from the matured. In this way, high quality grains are segregated, which command a higher price. As mentioned earlier, even its chaff and stems, when powdered, are commerciable.

source: http://www.elgu2.ncc.gov

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mikey
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« Reply #3 on: March 22, 2008, 01:58:37 PM »

Varieties

Red Creole
Red Pinoy
Yellow Granex (Hybrid)

Seed Establishment and Seed Sowing (Nursery)

Seedbed should be located in a weel-drained, friable soil with good water holding capacity and high organic matter content. If soil pH is lower than 5.8 lime application is necessary at the rate of 3 tons/ha applied one month before transplanting.

Land should be prepared by thorough plowings and harrowings. Level and pulverize the soil to facilitate formation of beds (1 meter wide and 20 m long.) Prior to seed sowing, sterilize the beds by burning rice straw on top or by pouring boiling water to prevent pest and disease infestation.

Broadcast chicken manure or compost at the rate of 10t/ha combined with 10 bags 14-14-14. Space 10-15 cm between rows and sow seeds evenly in a row at 5-6 seeds/inch with seeding depth of 1/2 inch. Appoximately 25 grams of seeds is needed per square meter. Irrigation should be applied adequately in the field right after seed sowing. Seeds will germinate at about 7-10 days after sowing and are ready for transplanting 45 days after sowing.

Land Preparation and Formation of Beds

Prepare the field by 2 plowings and 2 harrowings. Level and pulverize the soil to a fine texture to facilitate formation beds.

Raised beds are constructed at 0.5 meter wide by 20 m long (maximum) by 15 cm high. Double row beds will be prepared with a distance of 20-25 cm between hills and with a hole depth of at least 3.5 cm.

Basal Fertilization and Transplanting

Basal application of chicken dung or compost at the rate of 10t/ha combined with 10 bags 14-14-14 will be applied in the prepared hole and then cover thinly with fine soil.

Transplant one seedling in each hole by pressing downward the base of the seedlings so that the roots will have a good contact with the soil. Irrigate after transplanting.

Seedlings are ready for transplanting 45 days after sowing or when the seedlings are about pencil-size in ten diameter, has 5 visible leaves and a height of at least 15 cm.

Side-dressing

First side-dressing will be done ten days after transplanting with 3 bags/ha of Urea mixed with 2 bags/ha of Muriate of Potash or approximately 15 grams Urea and 10 grams Muriate of Potash per square meter.

Irrigation

Irrigation should be applied after transplanting. Weekly irrigation is done or whenever necessary. More frequent watering when the bulbs are developing. Do not irrigate 3-45 days before harvesting or when 20-30% of the plant tops fall over naturally.

Cultivation and Weeding

Cultivation and hand weeding should be done 10 days after transplanting to be followed two to three times more to make sure that the weeds are checked and the plants do not become waterlogged.

Hilling-up is done 3 weeks before the harvest to avoid greening of onions.

Insect Pests and Disease Control

Thrips - Abundant during dry season. Adults and nymphs rasp the leaf surface and suck juice from the leaf. The leaves appear slippery with sunken areas that later dry up resulting to weakened plant, reduced growth and lower yields.

Examine closely some plants from 14 m perimeter of the field by pulling the leaves apart at the base. It attack is severe, employ chemical control.

Armyworms - The larvae bore into the onion leaves and fed leaving the exterior almost intact. Damage is worse in weedy fields. Thorough land preparation is done to destroy the egg laying sites and feeding source. Chemical control is recommended.

Cutworms - Larvae feed at night and hide near their feeding site during the day. They roll when disturbed.

Purple Bloch - Fungal disease that occurs on leaves, bulbs, flowers, and survives in crop residues. Lesions start at small sunken area with dark purple center. Infection of the bulb occurs as the plant approaches maturity. A combined approach involving cultural and chemical control is necessary.

Sooty Mold - Occurs generally after the bulbs have been harvested. This is favored by high temperature and humidity. Curing the Onions quickly with good ventilation is necessary.

Bacterial Soft Rot - Bulbs that have mechanical injuries/bruises are susceptible. Make sure that plants are mature before harvest. Provide proper ventilation during the curing, packing and transport.

Fungal spraying is done o prevent fungal diseases. Spraying starts 12 days from sowing and weekly thereafter.

Harvesting and Curing

Harvest the crop as soon as the necks of the plants tends to fall down or when 75% of the stems are fallen over. Harvesting is done manually by pulling the matured bulbs.

Harvesting bulbs are placed in the field for 2-3 days before bringing them to the curing house. However, if rain occurs, the bulbs should be brought immediately to the curing house.

The curing house should be well ventilated and relative dry. Harvested bulbs are air-dried or cured 3-4 weeks until the neck is soft and dry (closed).

Remove or cut tops with shears 1.5 -2.5 cm. from stem end of the bulbs. Do not remove outer scales. Place the bulbs on racks made of tiers of bamboo, wood or netted wire. Put the racks in a well-ventilated shed.

Trimming/Sorting

Trim the onion roots and leaves right after harvest or one day after filling them under the sun. Use sharp knife or scythe and cut 4-6 cm from the bulb.
Cleaning/Sorting

Clean the bulbs by peeling-off the outer peelings. Arrange in crates and store in well-ventilated place free from high moisture and expose to the sun.

source: http://www.da.gov.ph

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mikey
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« Reply #4 on: March 22, 2008, 02:00:52 PM »

Scientific Name: Lycopersicum esculentum Mill
Family: Solanaceae

Sa lahat ng dako ng Pilipinas, ang kamatis ay itinatanim para sa pansariling konsumo sa bahay at pambenta. Isa itong pangunahing sangkap sa ensalada at makakain nang hilaw, nilaga, prito at magagawa rin atsara, ketsup at sopas. Ang iba’t-ibang uri nito ay ang sumusunod: Cambal, Ambal o Matikina, Pear Harbor, Pritch & Rutgers, Homestead, Earliana, Ace, Marglobe at Improved Harbor, ang uring pantag-ulan na pinagbuti ng BPI.

Ang kamatis ay tumutubo sa maraming uring lupa, mula sa banlikin hanggang sa lagkitin o sa lupang galas. Kailangan nito ang mainit na panahon at maliwanag na sikat ng araw.

Paraan ng Pagtatanim

Ihasik ang mga binhi sa kamang-punlaan. Humigit-kumulang sa ½ hanggang ¾ kilo ng binhi ang kailangan para sa isang ektarya. Gumawa sa kamang-punlaan ng hanay ng mabababaw na tudling na 15 sentimetrong pagitan. Ibudbod ang mga binhi nang manipis at pantay sa kamang-punlaan at saka tabunan ng kaunting lupa. Diligin ito araw-araw.

Ilipat-tanim ang mga punla pagkaraan ng 25-30 araw pagkapunla. Ihandang mabuti ang bukid. Itanim ang punla nang 50 sentimertong agwat sa tudling. Diligan ang mga bagong-lipat na tanim. Isagawa ang paghuhulip (muling pagtatanim sa mga tundos na nawala ng tanim) pagkaraan ng isang linggo.

Maglagay ng komersyal na abono sa mga tudling bago o kasabay ng pagtatanim. Sa sandaling mamulaklak at lumabas ang mga buko, maglagay ng abonong nitroheno. Kakailangin ang 100-150 kilo ng ammonium sulfate bawat ektarya.

Ang pag-aani ay isinasagawa nang maraming beses. Pinipitas lamang ang mga husto sa gulang na bunga.

Ang karaniwang kulisap na pumipinsala sa kamatis ay ang “tomato fruit worm”, at ang mapaminsalang sakit ay “bacterial wilt”. Upang masugpo ang mga kulisap at sakit ng kamatis, alisin ang mga may sakit na tanim at ugaliin na lagging malinis ang taniman sa pamamagitan ng pag-aalis ng mga damo at may pinsalang tanim.

source: http://www.da.gov.ph

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« Reply #5 on: March 22, 2008, 02:03:14 PM »

It is known as sitaw in Tagalog, utong in Ilocano, hantak in Waray, batong in Cebuano and latuy for the people of Marinduque. I wonder how it is called in Maranao, Tausug or in Bicolano?

Pole Sitao is a climbing herb crop raised basically for its pods, although shoots and young leaves are also edible. Pods are slender, 30-60 cm long and somewhat inflated with many seeds whose color depends on the variety. The crisp young pods, which have a high nutritional value, can be sauteed alone or cooked along with other vegetables.

Varieties

1. CSL-19- early maturing variety, which flowers 37 to 43 days after planting. Pods are light green, crisp, smooth textured, and non-fibrous with good eating quality. CSL-19 is moderately resistant to black bean aphids and bean fly. Other light-green-podded varieties are CSL-14, CSL-15, CSL-16, PS3, and PS 1.

2. 83-0002 ? is a variety with dark green leaves, which flowers 39-48 days after planting, It is moderately resistant to bean fly and pod borer and has a high level of resistance to fusarium wilt. Pods are dark green with purple tips, crisp and non-fibrous, and with good eating quality. Seed coat is very thick. Other fark-green-podded varieties are Sandigan, CSD-4, 87-005, Acc 288, CSD-36 and 89-020.

Climate and Soil Requirements

Pole sitao is well adapted to the lowland tropics with a temperature range of 20-35C. It grows best under full sunlight although it can also tolerate partial shading.

Adequate supply of water and a rich, friable, fertile soil promotes healthy growth and good quality pods.

Planting

Pre-germinate or directly sow seeds in pots or drill 2.5 to 3.5 cm deep in the plots with a distance of 30 cm. Construct trellis/stakes, 200-250 m long to support the vines after the seedlings have fully developed. Boxes, plastic twines, abaca twines or wire will also help support the climbing habit of the crop.

Apply organic waste to enhance crop vigor and yield. Mulch the crop with grass clippings and kitchen waste.

To minimize pest and damage, plant marigold and holy basil (solasi) in borders to repel insects. Spread grated coconut waste over the plant to invite ants, which feed on worms. Spray hot pepper extract with soap against aphids and podborers.

Harvesting

Pick young pods six to seven weeks after planting or when seeds become visible on the outline of the pod. Fresh pods left in the field becomes tough and dissolved. Seeds become swollen, which reduces yielding capacity. Harvest every 2-3 days.

For marketing, 20-40 pods may be bundled. Store in a cool (8C), dry place up to four weeks.

source:PCARRD Pole Sitaw Production Guide; http://www.pcarrd.dost.gov
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« Reply #6 on: March 22, 2008, 02:06:12 PM »

Jackfruit scientifically known as Artocarpus heterophyllius, lam, locally known as “nangka” or “langka” is a favorite dessert of Filipinos. It is one of the most widely grown fruit crops in the Philippines. It was reported that this fruit is one of the famous in the world because it produces the largest edible fruit that weighs as much as 50kg.

Many people believe that the leaves of the jackfruit tree can cure skin diseases. The bast of the tree is utilized in making rope and clothing. Cebuanos use the wood of the jackfruit tree in making excellent guitars and ukeleles, that’s why jackfruit orchards are becoming increasingly popular in Cebu.

More and more farmers are becoming aware of the versatility of the jackfruit and they are exploring still other possible uses for it. Aside from food, the jackfruit is also used for commercial and noncommercial purposes. The fruit, trunk, leaves, and roots can be utilized for household use or can be processed commercially. The trunk can be used as lumber or building material. The leaves can be used as medicine, fodder for animals, and compost. It latex can be used as paste or glue. The seeds can be used as food, for human consumption, feeds or planting materials while the roots can be used as handle for farm implements.

Jackfruit grows best in deep, sandy loam to clay loam soils of medium fertility with good drainage. Fertility of the soils of medium fertility with good drainage. Fertility of the soil should be considered because of the rapid exhaustion of soil nutrients taken by the plants. The ideal pH of the soil for jackfruit ranges from 5 to 6.5. Distinct variations have been observed by the National Seed Industry council in Los Baños, Laguna and the Mandaue Experiment Station in Cebu city.

VARIETIES

Several varieties of jackfruit are grown in the Philippines, however, the most important cultivars are the Sinaba and Tinumbaga.

• Sinaba variety has thick flesh, small seed, and good eating quality.
• Tinumbaga variety has thinner flesh, a stronger aroma, and sweeter taste than Sinaba.

PROPAGATION

Jackfruit is usually propagated by seeds or by asexual propagation. Farmers who propagate by seeds should select healthy, vigorous, and disease-resistant seeds from productive mother trees. A sexual propagation can be done by enriching or grafting. Among the grafting methods, cleft grafting appears to be the most effective as it is able to counter the devastating effects of a typhoon which usually destroys tall trees. A cleft grafted tree is high in genetic quality, grows short but strong in stature. It’s branches tend to spread sidewards.

Plant seeds in seedboxes or tin cans. Clear and clean the field at least one year before transplanting seedlings to a permanent site. A few weeks before planting, dig holes about 60 to 80 centimeters in diameter and 40 to 50 centimeters deep. When planting, fill holes with fertile surface soil instead of subsoil dug out of the holes.

Before transplanting, prune-two-thirds of the leaves of the seedlings. Cut leafy brnaches to prevent excessive moisture loss and take special care when transplanting because the jackfruit has a delicate root system.

Also, planting distance should be no less than 10 to 12 meters between trees. Remove all weeds within a radius of one meter around the tree. Prune trees regularly to remove unnecessary twigs and branches.

FERTILIZATION AND IRRIGATION

Growing seedlings need ample nitrogen fertilizer while bearing trees need regular applications of phosphorous and potash.

1.) In the absence of soil analysis, apply as basal either manure or compost at the rate of 3kgs per plant or 2 metric tons per hectare. One month after planting, apply 100-150g ammonium sulfate per tree. After six months, apply an equal amount of 100-150g ammonium sulfate and towards the end of the rainy season. Organic fertilizer is advisable to apply around the trees. When trees start bearing fruits and during the start of the rainy season, apply 1/2kg-2kg complete fertilizer and 200g-300g muriate or potash (0-0-60) per tree. Every six months thereafter, apply complete fertilizer
at the rate of 1 1/2kg-3kg per tree.

2.) Water requirement is less critical in jackfruit production, however, irrigate the farm during extreme drought.

WEEDING

Periodic ring weeding and underbrush shall be done every three (3) months.

PRUNING

Prune trees at two (2) years of age. Cut the top of the main stem leaving 2-3 meters above the ground to regulate the height. Apply fungicide on resulting wounds. Pruning consists of the removal of small unproductive branches as well as diseased and insect-damaged ones. Since fruits are usually produced on the trunk and large branches, the removal of unwanted branches would give more light to the developing fruits.

In Thailand, a uniform system of pruning is followed, that is, by pruning the main trunk well above the bud union to induce the production of multiple branches close to the ground. Allow four or main branches to grow to carry the fruits, instead of distributing the heavy fruits on the main trunk and the smaller over to the side branches. This, system also opens the center of the tree for better light penetration and air movement.

PEST AND DISEASES

1.) Fruit fly - Like most fruit rrees, jackfruit is vulnerable to fruit fly infestation, a most destructive pest. The fruit fly lays its eggs under the skin of the fruit and which hatch in 5-6 days. The larvae work their way into the fruit, eventually causing rot and making it unfit for market. The larva comes out of the fruit and falls to the ground to pupate in the soil. An adult lays about 100 eggs in one oviposition.

To control - Wrap fruits with empty cement bags or jute sacks. Spray wrappers with pesticide to reduce fruit damage.

2.) Twig borer - Borers attack the twigs and cause the affected twigs to dry up. An adult borer is slight gray in color and about 2 cm long.

To control - Cut off all affected shoots and twigs and destroy them by burning before spraying the tree with the recommended insecticides with long residual effects. Spraying showed be done twice a month depending on the degree of infestation.

3.) Another common pest is the Bark borer.

To control - This pest remove the dead branches where it lays its eggs. Spray the recommended pesticides and bum affected twigs and dead branches.

4.) Jackfruit is also attacked by the Fungal pink disease, especially during the rainy season.

To prevent its spread, spray plants with sulphur fungicide at least twice a month during rainy season. Always prune and burn severely affected branches.

HARVESTING

Jackfruit bears fruit at three years old. About 10 fruits can be harvested the first time the tree bears fruit.

The following are indicators of fruit ripeness:

• when the last leaf on the stalk turns yellow;
• the fruit produces dull, hollow sounds when tapped;
• its well-developed and widely spaced spines yield to moderate pressure.

The time to harvest depends on how the fruit is to be Jackfruitused. If it’s for home consumption, pick fruit when the rind is soft, emitting an aromatic odor, and when the leaf nearest the stalk turns yellow. At this stage, the flesh of the fruit is yellow-orange, shiny and juicy. If you plan to sell the fruit, pick it when mature but still firm and without aroma. At this stage, the flesh is pale-yellow and crisp.

Take extra care not to damage the fruit. When you cut the penduncle of the fruit with a sharp knife or sickle, be sure another person wearing hand gloves to protect his hands from spines will assist. When harvesting from tall trees, place the fruit in a sack to prevent it from falling to the ground. Tie a rope to the stalk, snap the fruit from the tree, and slowly lower the bundle to the ground.

Harvesting should be done at mid - morning to late afternoon to reduced latex flow because, at this time of the day, latex cells are less turgid. This would minimize latex stains which give the fruit an unsightly appearance. Remove the retained peduncle and unwanted water sprouts from the trunk after picking the fruit.

When handling the fruit, lay it against a railing with its stalk down to let the latex flow and coagulate. It is best to transport the fruits in single layers. Always put dried banana leaves between fruits and spread some on the container to prevent the fruits from getting bruises, scars, and breaks. Never insert a pointer stick into the fruit’s stem. Many people in the rural areas believe this technique hastens ripening but this has no basis. A cut on the stem only serves as an entry point for decay-producing organisms.

The fruit usually weighs from five to 15 kilogram; bigger ones weigh more. Fruit experts or pomologists grade the fruit according to size: large, at least 20kg; medium, at least 15kg but no more than 20kg; and small, at least 8kg but not more than 15kg. Another way of grading jackfruit is according to condition. Grade No. 1 means that the fruit is fairly well-formed, free from damage by discoloration or scars, cuts, skin breaks, diseases, and insects. Grade No. 2 means that the fruit has no specific shape, though free from cuts, skin breaks, insects, and diseases.

sources:
1. Technoguide Series, Jackfruit
DA-RFU 8, eastern Visayas Integrated Agricultural Research Center (EVIARC)
2. Asexual Propagarion in Jackfruit, EVIARC leaflet No. 1
3. Jackfruit Delights, EVIARC

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« Reply #7 on: March 22, 2008, 02:09:24 PM »

MANGOSTEEN (Garcinia mangostana Linn of the family Gutiiferae) is one of the most delicious and best flavored fruits in the world. It is one tropical fruit that is most ready accepted by the West. It is a seasonal fruit that has a great export market. The eatable portion of the mangosteen fruit is 1/3 of the whole fruit. The aril is about 25-30% of the fruit and contains 19.8% soluble solids, 4.3% reducing sugar, and 17.5% to total sugar. Analysis of the rind indicates that it is rich in pectin.

Uses and Food Value

Its composition taken from the 1990 edition of the Food Composition Table prepared by the Food and Nutrition Research Institute is as follows. The pulp, which is very light and soft and has an exquisite flavor, is best eaten fresh, preferably after chilling the fruit. The pulp and seed, when boiled with sugar, make an excellent preserve or topping for ice cream or sherbet. The seeds have a delicious nutty flavor. The leaves and bark, claimed to be medicinal, are used as astringent to cure aphtha or thrush. They are also used as antipyretic while the pericarp is regarded as very effective in curing chronic intestinal catarrach. The pericarp contains 7-15% tannin and it is used for dyeing. A decoction of the root may be taken to achieve regular menstruation. Leaf infusion is applied to wounds and a decoction of the pericarp may be administered to cure dysentery or simply used as a lotion. Dried rind is used as an astringent. The seed contains about 30% valuable oil.

SOIL AND CLIMATIC REQUIREMENTS

Mangosteen thrives best in warm, humid environment. Ideal temperature is 20°C-30°C. A temperature of less than 20°C slows down growth. Ideally, rainfall should be well distributed throughout the year, but trees are known to grow successfully even under dry conditions with irrigation. The soil should be rich, porous, deep and wet but well drained. Heavy clay with a generous admixture of sand and silt, and a water table of about two meters are best. It also grows well up to an elevation of zero to 500 meters. The tree also thrives well along river banks, canals, ponds and lakes.

CULTURE AND MANAGEMENT

A. Land Preparation

Before planting, condition the land and make it fit for the reception of the trees. In clearing, all tree stumps should be removed along with as many roots as possible. If a mangosteen orchard is to be established, land preparation follows the system for other fruit crops. This consists of deep plowing once and twice, followed by several harrowings, until the desired soil tilth is attained. Stakes are set at a distance of 8-10m corresponding to the recommended distance of planting for mangosteen. Holes are then dug at the positions occupied by the stakes where mangosteen seedlings are set and covered with soil.

B. Sowing the seeds and care of the seedlings

Seeds are sown inseed boxes, seed flats or pots, bamboo tubes or plastic bags, under a cover. In a week or two, the seeds sprout and the seedlings are to be kept in a nursery under partial shade and watered 3 to 4 times a week. Usually, the seedlings take about two years to become large enough for transplanting to a permanent field. At this stage, the plants are about 30 cm tall.

C. Planting and Spacing

Mangosteen seedlings are ready to be transplanted to the field when they are two years old, at which age, they are about 25-30 cm tall. The seedlings are to be carefully removed from the containers and set in the holes to avoid disturbing the root system. The most suitable period to transplant is just after the rainy season has set in. Planting in an area where there are light shimmers is very helpful in ensuring satisfactory establishment of the young plants. On level land, the trees are planted using the square system:spacing of at least 8m x 8m between rows and between trees in a row. some 156 seedlings to a hectare are needed. The size of the holes should be 0.6m x 0.6m x 0.6m and filed with farm manure. Plants are then set out at the center of the hole. Gradually fill-in the hole with loose top soil. Gently press the soil until it firmly grips the plant.

D. Weeding and Cultivation

Ring-weeding at one meter radius and loosening the earth are practiced to preserve the fertility of the soil, as well as to allow the development of the plants. Areas between rows are plowed for better weed control and cultivation.

IRRIGATION

Artificial irrigation is practiced during dry months. Water the plants as soon as they are transplanted and sustain during the times when precitation is not adequate in order to keep the soil moisture at a high level. In the seedling stage, however, standing water over the roots can kill the plant outright.

FERTILIZATION

Mangosteen trees respond well to manuring. Diluted organic fertilizer which can be absorbed slowly is desirable. Also, application of a nitrogenous fertilizer can accelerate vegetative growth of the plants. Fertilizer application varies with the age of the plant. Since ammonium sulfate is applied at planting time, succeeding application should follow a circular outline following the tree’s canopy. Dig 4 to 6 holes following the circular plan on the ground. Put the fertilizer into the holes, cover to prevent volatillization, and to reduce runoff in case of heavy rains. At planting time, apply 200-250 grams complete fertilizer per tree three inches below the roots and five inches at the side of the seeding. For young trees, mix and apply in two equal dosages 300-500 grams 14-14-14 or 12-24-12 and broadcast or apply, by digging a shallow furrow around each tree, 200-300 grams urea (45-0-0). Apply the first dosage at the start of the rainy season and the second dosage at the end of the rainy season. During the fruit-bearing stage, mix then apply in two equal doses 1.5 to 3.0 kg 14-14-14 or 12-24-12 plus 200- 300 grams Muriate of Potash (0-0-60). Apply in same manner as that for young trees. Gradually increase the amount of fertilizer every year as the trees grow bigger and as fruit production increases.

INTERCROPPING AND COVER CROPPING

Planting intercrops and cover crops in the mangosteen orchard is more or less confined to the early years because, as the trees develop in size and status, not much unshaded space is left in between rows for their proper growth. Mangosteen, in Sulu Archipelago, is usually planted with intercrops or peanut and other leguminous field crops, or with companion plants like abaca and banana, or marang and lansones trees. other crops that may be intercroped also are “dapdap” or durian trees which can serve as partial shades.

PEST AND DISEASES

Mangosteen is subject to several pests, the most common of which are mites, aphids, fructifier ants and mealy bugs. Others, such as tussock caterpillars feed on the leaves while coconut scales form colonies underneath the leaves which causes leaf yellowing in patches thus impairing plant growth. Occasionally, sooty molds are found covering the leaves. Diseases due to anthracnose and bacterial leaf sheath have also been reported. As a preventive measure, the plants may be sprayed two four time a year with common fungicides at dosages recommended. Read the label before application.

HARVESTING, CURING AND STORING

Mangosteen usually flowers in 10 to 15 years but if given proper care, asexually propagated trees bear fruit in eight to nine years. It takes about five to six months from flowering stage to fruit ripening. Harvesting is normally done from the month of August to October. The fruit is mature when its color changes from greenish brown to reddish purple and when it is rather soft to the touch. Great care must be practiced when harvesting fruits. Be sure that the fruits are mature at harvest time, otherwise, they may fail to develop an excellent flavor. Handle the fruits with great care while harvesting. Handpicking is a good method since the pericarp, which is still slightly soft at harvest is easily subjected to injury when the fruits falls. As an alternative method use a long pole with a hook at the tip and a catching basket attached at the end where the fruits will be collected. The method of harvesting employed in Sulu is hand picking the fruit with its preduncle intact. Fruits are then bound together in elongated clusters of 15 pieces.

source:
1. Alakbar, P. 1971, Culture of Mangosteen, Special Report on the Culture of Mangosteen Based on the Practice employed in the Province of Sulu, BPI, Sulu.
2. Guide in Mangosteen Growing, 1985 Bureau of Plant Industry, Manila.
3. http://www. da.gov.ph

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« Reply #8 on: March 22, 2008, 02:12:35 PM »

At the end of the nineteenth century, several plant species were introduced into the Philippines. These came from different parts of the world and included fruits, vegetables and medicinal plants. Some proved to be valuable and easily adapted to the Philippine conditions while others were less promising and did not gain a wide acceptance among the populace. One of the introductions which proved to be suitable to the Philippine soil and climatic conditions was the avocado.

Known as ‘aguacate’ in Spanish and ‘alligator pear’, ‘Palta pear’, ‘Midshipmans butter’ and ‘avocado’ in English, it is called as ‘abokado’ in the Philippine vernacular. It was introduced into the Philippines in 1890 by the Spaniards through seeds coming from Mexico. However, it was only from 1902 to 1907 that avocado was introduced successfully into the Philippines by the Americans. Through the Bureau of Agriculture (now the Bureau of Plant Industry which is under the Department of Agriculture), planting materials were received from Hawaii, Costa Rica and the United States. In 1913, the Bureau of Agriculture, together with the College of Agriculture of the University of the Philippines Los Baos, started the countrywide spreading of avocado trees. Now, avocados are found growing all over the country, most of which are cultivated in backyards.

Varieties

The avocado varieties in the country have been developed mainly through introduction and selection. Many varieties have been introduced since 1903 and most of them have been lost. Today, only a few varieties exist. Most of them are selections from local seedling trees, and they are confined to only a few nurseries and backyards. These are:

* Cardinal: The fruit bottlenecked with an average weight of 400 grams. The skin is reddish-purple and thick (1.3 mm). The seed is small (40 g) and is loose to tight in the cavity. The flesh is yellow, moderately fibrous and constitutes 80 per cent of the whole fruit by weight.

* Calma: The fruit ovoid and weighing 600 grams. The skin is reddish-purple and intermediate in thickness (1.0 mm). The seed is small (80 g) and is loose in the cavity. The flesh is yellow and is 80 per cent of the whole fruit by weight.

* Uno: The fruit ovoid and weighing 400 grams. The skin is purple and is rather thick (2.0 mm). The seed is small (80 g) and is loose to tight in the cavity. The flesh is creamy yellow and is 80 per cent of the whole fruit by weight.

* 240: The fruit ovoid and weighing 600 grams. The skin is green and thin (1.26 mm). The seed is intermediate in size (90 g) and is rather loose in the cavity. The flesh is creamy yellow and is 80 per cent of the whole fruit by weight.

* 227: The fruit is bottlenecked and weighing 500 grams. The skin is purple and thick (1.3 mm). The seed is small (50 g) and is loose in the cavity. The flesh is dark yellow and is 80 per cent of the whole fruit by weight.

Recently, three new varieties were approved by the National Seed Industry Council. However, these have not yet been released to the private nurseries. These new varieties are:

* Parker: The fruit ovoid and having an average weight of 600 grams. The skin is purple and thick (1.1 mm). The seed is small in size (70 g) and is tight in the cavity. The flesh is creamy yellow and is 80 per cent of the whole fruit by weight.

* RCF Purple: The fruit ovoid and weighing 400 grams. The skin is reddish-purple and thick (1.2 mm). The seed is small (40 g) and is loose in the cavity. The flesh is creamy yellow and is 80 per cent of the whole fruit by weight.

* Cepillo Green: The fruit pyriform and weighing 700 grams. The skin is green and intermediate in thickness (0.9 mm). The seed is intermediate in size (90 g). The flesh is dark yellow and is 80 per cent of the whole fruit by weight.

No varieties have so far been identified for rootstock use. Available seeds coming from the seasons produce are usually sown and the resulting seedlings are used as rootstocks.

Production of Planting Materials

Since the avocado is not considered a major fruit in the country and is planted mostly in backyards, only a limited amount of planting material is being produced in a few government institutions and private nurseries. Planting materials may come in the form of grafted plants or seedlings for rootstock use. Government agencies such as the Bureau of Plant Industry of the Department of Agriculture and the University of the Philippines Los Baos, particularly the National Seed Foundation and the Department of Horticulture, produce a few hundred grafted plants of locally available varieties. Small private nurseries which also sell sexually propagated avocado plants are a good source of seedling rootstocks for propagation. Seedlings grown in the nurseries are heterogeneous - each seedling different from another, even though the seeds may have come from one variety or only from one parent tree.

The commonly used and preferred method for large-scale propagation is grafting. This method is less labour-requiring, faster and economical in the use of scion materials. In the case of cleft-grafting, 6-12 months old seedlings are used as rootstocks. Budwood sticks are obtained from the seasons mature growth with well-developed terminal buds. New shoots are formed within three to four weeks. Other methods of propagation which are sometimes employed are inarching and shield-budding. Inarching is a slow and laborious process although it can be used during the rainy season when grafting and budding cannot be done successfully. Shield-budding on the other hand is a fast method. However, it requires skill.

Management

Training and pruning of plants

Avocado requires very little pruning once the tree has been established. When the trees are still young, especially during the first few years, the plants are trained to a desirable shape by allowing three well-spaced branches to develop and eliminating the rest. Once the trees have attained the desired form, pruning is confined to the removal of diseased, infested and interlacing branches and watersprouts.

Fertilizer application

Many avocado trees in the Philippines are grown without the benefit of fertilizer. This may be the reason why fruit yield and quality tend to decline after fruiting for several years.

Under the existing orchard soil conditions in the country, young and nonbearing avocado trees require only nitrogenous fertilizer. Farmers apply 100-200 grams of ammonium sulphate or about 50-100 grams urea/tree, twice a year. As the trees bear fruit, 500 grams of complete fertilizer are applied, twice a year. For full-bearing trees, two kilograms of complete fertilizer are applied per year. A supplemental application of organic fertilizers, e.g. animal and poultry manure, and compost, is also given.

The fertilizer is applied at the onset and towards the end of the rainy season. It is usually applied in a ring around the trunk of the tree or in shallow holes dug beneath the tree canopy.

Weeding and mulching

Mulching of avocado trees is not practised in the Philippines. Weeding, on the other hand, is confined only to the removal of weeds within a one-metre radius from the trunk especially when the trees are still young; it is usually carried out manually with the use of a scythe or mechanically with the use of a grasscutter.

Irrigation

The practise of irrigating avocado trees in the country is uncommon. The plants are irrigated only when they are newly planted in the field and at certain times of the year when the dry season extends from four to five months. Otherwise, the trees are rainfed. Irrigation is effected manually.

Control of pests and diseases

The insect pests attacking the avocado, in order of their importance, are the following:

* Borers: The borers, Niphonoclea albata and Niphonoclea capitoe, attack the trunk, pith and twigs by boring their way and cutting off the plants tissues. Lime wash and lime sulphur are used as repellents. In some instances, the tree is sprayed with insecticide.

* Scale Insects and Mealy Bugs: The scale insect, Asphidiutus destructor, and the mealy bugs suck the sap from the leaves, shoots and fruits, causing premature falling of the fruits. Oil emulsion spray is used in controlling these insects.

* Oriental Fruit Fly: The Oriental fruit fly, Dacus dorsalis, attacks the mature fruits which are about to ripen. They are controlled by spraying with malathion.

The major diseases which affect the avocado are:

* Root rot: This is caused by the fungus Phytophthora cinnamomi. Symptoms include yellowing of leaves, sparse foliage, wilting of leaves and dieback of shoots. Prevention of conditions conducive to the growth of the fungus by providing adequate drainage or avoiding planting in waterlogged areas seems to be the best method at present to control the disease.

* Anthracnose: This is caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and affects the leaves, twigs and fruits. It is controlled by spraying with Bordeaux mixture or copper sulphate.

A minor disease of the avocado is the scab which is caused by Sphaceloma perseae. It attacks the fruit and is controlled by spraying with Bordeaux mixture.

Harvesting

Avocado fruits are harvested when they are fully mature. Indications of maturity are the appearance of reddish-purple streaks on the stem-end of purple-fruited varieties and a change in colour from green to light green on green-fruited varieties. In the case of loose-seeded varieties, an indication of fruit maturity is the production of a hollow sound when the fruit is tapped with the fingers.

Avocado fruits on the same tree do not mature at the same time, so selective harvesting is usually practised. This requires going over the tree several times until all the fruits are harvested. Harvesting is accomplished manually by climbing the tree or by using a ladder. Fruits which cannot be reached by hand are harvested with the use of a long bamboo pole fitted at one end with a wire hook and an attached net to catch the fruits. The fruits are then placed in sacks or in rattan or bamboo baskets lined with banana leaves, for transport to the market.

From the national figures on area and production for the years 1990-1997, a mean annual yield of 9.6 t/ha with 84 kg/tree was estimated. This is quite an improvement from the figures recorded 15 years earlier, when mean yield was only 4.9 t/ ha with 50 kg/tree. Though the total area planted and the number of bearing trees recorded for both periods did not change drastically, the yield almost doubled. This was due to the increased yield reported for the Cagayan Valley, Central Visayas and ARMM. The reason for this could only be surmised. This may be due to improved production practices followed by the farmers in these regions. Otherwise, the yield in the other regions did not change much.

In terms of quality, much is to be desired. Most of the avocado fruits sold in the market are of poor quality. This is due to poor crop management employed by the farmers plus the fact that most of the trees grown come from seeds of unknown origin. Another reason for the low quality of the fruits is the poor accessibility of the production areas of the avocado. In many instances, the farm is situated in areas accessible only by trails and paths making transport of the produce difficult and time-consuming. With proper cultivars and improved production and transport facilities, the yield and quality of avocado are projected to improve substantially.

Marketing

In the Philippines, the marketing of avocado involves two very simple systems. In the first system, the farmers bring their harvest to the market together with other farm produce i.e. banana, root crops, chicken, and sell these directly to the consumers. In this way they obtain a higher price for the avocado fruits. In the second system, a middleman, locally called ‘comprador’, buys all the avocado fruits from the farmers at a lower price and sells them in the market at a higher price. The middleman generally dictates the farm-gate price since he bears the transportation cost. Under the present nature of small-scale and backyard avocado production, where the volume of production is small, the farmer prefers to sell his produce to the middleman. Avocado production is for the local market.

sources: Avocado Production in the Philippines - Rachel C. Sotto - University Researcher and Project Leader, Institute of Plant Breeding, University of the Philippines Los Banos, College, Laguna, Philippines

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« Reply #9 on: March 22, 2008, 02:23:57 PM »

Want to be a millionaire? Stop wasting precious money on lotto or get-rich-quick schemes such as those being peddled by swindlers through text messaging. Why not try planting tuba-tuba?

According to Bukidnon Rep Juan Miguel Zubiri, tuba-tuba, whose scientific name is jathropa curcas, is a “fast-growing small tree whose fruit actually a nut, can be processed into cooking oil or car fuel.”

“Planting tuba-tuba can be a very profitable proposition,” Zubiri, who is promoting the use of bio-fuels, said yesterday.

“Three kilos of tuba-tuba seeds or nuts could produce a liter of bio-diesel. Tuba-tuba bio-diesel readily mixes with diesel fuel and can run any diesel engine without modification,” he said.

He said the small tree can bear fruit within three years from planting and can produce as much as 12 tons of nuts a year.

He cited a study made by the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR), which showed that a grower can earn P200,000 per hectare per year from the sale, and processing of tuba-tuba nuts.

Zubiri said growing tuba-tuba does not require much investment.

He said the DENR, under Administrative Order 2005-25, is making available up to four million hectares of denuded forestland for planting to tuba-tuba and other tree species.

Individuals and groups can apply to till up to a maximum of 50 hectares each, he said.

He added that the DENR will even provide the initial saplings for applicants to plant.

Growing Tuba-Tuba

The Tuba-tuba Plant (Jatropha curcas) also known as Tubang Bakod in Tagalog, Physic Nut in English or interchangeably tuba-tuba or Jatropha. The latest craze to hit the agri-business in the Philippines. Primarily for its oil to produce biodiesel. The Tuba-tuba has been planted in the Philippines for quite some time but it was used mainly as fencing since it animals do not eat the leaves -even the insatiable goat would not eat the leaves. The ever increasing price of petroleum prices has triggered interest on the Tuba-tuba or Jatropha.

Jatropha is a drought resistant perennial shrub or small tree that produces seeds up to 35 years but can live up to 50 years. Jatropha grows fast with little or no maintenance and reaches the average height of about 3 meters but it can grow up to 8 meters.

Tuba-tuba is one of the most promising sources of bio-fuel today. About 30% of the Tuba-tuba nut is composed of oil. 3 kilos of Jatropha seeds can produce about 1 liter of crude Jatropha oil that can then be processed into biodiesel fuel. This oil can be easily be processed into fuel that can replace or mixed with petroleum based diesel to save on imported oil and most importantly increase local employment and help the economy to grow.

Since the Jatropha plant’s average height is about three meters, harvesting is easy and the plant can be grown practically anywhere (ordinary soil, sandy, gravely or rocky soil) and adapts easily to different climates. Jatropha is resistant to droughts -it can stand up to two years without rainfall. The tree also has a short gestation period, it will bear a several fruits starting at about 6 months old and be fully fruit bearing between one to two years.

Other Benefits of Planting Tuba-tuba/Jatropha:

* Aside from using the seed oil as biodiesel, the extracted oil can also be used in making soap.
* The Jatropha/Tuba-tuba leaves can be used for fumigating houses to expel bugs.
* The root extract of Jatropha plant can be used as yellow die while the bark extract as blue dye. While the seeds when pounded can be used for tanning.
* The roots, flowers and latex of the Jatropha plant are said to have medicinal properties.
* Planting Jatropha reduces soil degradation, erosion and deforestation of the countryside.

Planting the Tuba-Tuba:

Irrigated land can be planted with up to 2,500 Jatropha plants per hectare - a spacing or two meters by two meters. But on poor soil, and land dependent only on rainfall, the plants should be spaced further apart. A month or two before the start of rainy season is a good time to plant. Jatropha seeds can directly be planted or 2 to 3 month old seedlings from nurseries can be used. Jatropha seedling or cutting is planted then covered on an up-hill manner to avoid erosion. The plants are watered for two weeks after transplanting. Seeds can usually be harvested 1 year after planting. Potential yield ranges from 1.25 to 12.5 tons of seeds per hectare.

Process of Oil Extraction:

Oil is easily extracted from the Tuba-tuba nut by the use of a presser-expeller. This engine driven machine is simple enough to be operated in provinces by village folks. The yield is about 1 liter of oil for every 3 kilos of seeds. The oil is then refined to produce biodiesel.

It has been estimated that for a processing plant (presser-expeller) to be economically viable and have continuous supply of the Jatropha nut, 5,000 hectares of land have to be planted with Jatropha trees. The trees can also be planted on coconut plantations - intercropping the Tuba-tuba/ Jatropha under the coconut trees. With proper weeding, pruning, ploughing and fertilization, up to 20 kilos of seeds can be harvested per tree - up to 0.40 metric tons per hectare for non-irrigated land and up to 2.5 metric tons of seed per year if the land is irrigated. This is a boost for coconut farmers and land owners alike.

In the Philippines, planting of Jatropha or Tuba-tuba is on high gear, more so in Visayas & Mindanao but it can be planted anywhere. The Philippine Coconut Authority (PCA) is actively promoting its planting to coconut farmers.

With the ever increasing interest in biodiesel fuels, we may one day get used to the idea that fuel for our vehicles was harvested from local plantations instead of using imported oil from the Middle East.

source: http://www.pcaagribiz.da.gov.ph, http://www.herbal-medicine.philsite.net


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mikey
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« Reply #10 on: March 22, 2008, 02:27:01 PM »

Banana is one of the most common and widely grown fruit crops in the Philippines. It is also one of the country’s major dollar earners, and has consistently ranked next to coconut oil and prawns in terms of value earnings during the last five years.

In 1991, banana topped local production among the other major fruits such as pineapple and mango, thus eating up more than one-third of the production pie.

Banana has various uses. The ripe fruit is pureed, candied, and preserved in various forms when not eaten fresh. Its extract is used in the manufacture of catsup, vinegar,and wine. The unripe fruit is powdered and chipped.

In rural areas, the young leaves are pounded to suppress bleeding and treat wounds. The leaves are also widely used as packing materials for fruits and vegetables in market centers. Banana fiber is manufactured into rope, sack, and mat. Sheets of paper and paper boards are also made from banana peel. Banana blossom is exported dried. Filipino housewives use it in special dishes.

VARIETY

Banana is native to Southeast Asia where the climate is warm and humid. Of the 57 banana cultivars, the following are the most common in the Philippines:

1. Saba - grows to as tall as 20 feet; fruit is angular; has thick peel that is green when unripe, yellow when ripe; flesh is white when ripe; gestation period is 15 to 16 months.
2. Lacatan - grows to a height of five to nine feet; fruit is round, seedless; has thick peel that has green when unripe, yellow-orange when ripe; gestation period is 14 to 15 months.
3. Latundan - grows from six to 10 feet tall; fruit is round; has thin peel that is green when unripe, yellow when ripe; flesh is white when ripe; gestation period is 12 months.
4. Bungulan - fruit is round, very sweet, seedless and easily rots; has thick peel that is green when unripe and remains green when ripe; flesh is white when ripe; gestation period is 12 months.
5. Cavendish - reaches five to 10 feet high; fruit is bigger than Bungulan; peel is green when unripe, yellow when ripe; flesh is yellow when ripe; export quality; gestation period is six to eight months.
6. Other varieties grown in the country include the Morado, Pitogo Los Banos, Senorita, Tindok, Gloria, Granda, and Tumok.

CLIMATE AND SOIL REQUIREMENTS

Banana is well adapted to well-drained, loamy, soil that is rich in organic matter. Areas with an average rainfall of 4000 millimeters (mm) a year are ideal sites for a banana plantation. A temperature between 27 to 30 degrees Celsius is most favorable to the crop.

Banana grows at sea level up to 1,800 meters altitude. It is susceptible to root rot when exposed to too much water. Typhoon belt do not make good plantation sites.

PROPAGATION

Banana can be propagated through its rhizomes and suckers. The latter, however, is the best recommended. Suckers must be parasites-free and have healthy roots. These are spaded out of the clumps when four-to-five feet tall.

LAND PREPARATION

The fields is plowed and harrowed thrice. All stumps and bushes must be removed. Knee-deep holes with 45-cm diameters are dug and 3each hole is fertilized with 10 grams of complete fertilizer and a few of granular nematode.

PLANTING

Suckers are set on field in vertical position, then covered with surface soil. Compost material added to the soil enhances the recovery and growth of the new plants. The soil is stumped around each base and watered regularly. During dry months, irrigation, if possible, is advised.Planting is the best at the start of the rainy season.

CULTIVATION AND MAINTENANCE

Cultivation should go beyond six inches from the base of the plant to avoid root injury. Intercrops or Glamoxine or Karmex sprays act as weed control. Plants must be propped with bamboo poles during fruiting for support against strong winds.

DESUCKERING OR PRUNING

Unnecessary suckers must be killed by cutting them off the mother plants. Only one or two suckers must be allowed per hill to reduce soil nutrients competition.

FERTILIZATION

For poor soils, fertilizers should contain N-P-K at a ratio of 3-1-6. the ratio is doubled when fertilizers are applied to young plants. The amount of fertilizer applied increases as the tree matures. At flowering and fruiting period, a tree needs five to six pounds of complete fertilizer.

PEST AND DISEASES

There are at least 27 insect pests that attack banana plants in the Philippines. However, there are only three pests known to cost significant damage over all types of banana.

The banana corm weevil feeds on suckers and destroys the corm tissues. It causes the suckers to die of bore attack. To control this pest, spray the soil with Furadan 5 G, 10 G. Sanitation and cutting of affected corms are also effective cultural controls, and are environment friendly.

Fruit-peel sarring beetle damages the fruit surfaces. The banana bunch is usually sprayed with Decis to control infestation. The banana floral thrips can be easily controlled by Diazinon 40/60 EC or Decis 2.5. 100 EC spray.

The three major diseases of banana are the sigatoka, pitting or wilting and the moko. Sigatoka is a leaf spot disease caused by Mycosphaerella musicola. This causes the premature death of leaves. In severe cases, the size of bunches and fingers is reduced. The fruit is also ripens prematurely and develops abnormal flavor and smell. Plants are usually sprayed with Bordeaux mixture. Badly spotted leaves are removed to avoid contamination.

Pitting or Wilting disease is characterized by dry, reddish-brown or black, circular or oval, depressed spots. Sanitation is one way of preventing the disease which comes in season with the rainy days. All collapsed leaves should be removed.

Moko disease, on the other hand, transmitted from plat to plant by insects and infected tools. The impact of moko to plants is similar to that of the sigatoka. Only, it does not emit unfavorable smell. Infected fruits also blacken inside. Infection is prevented by disinfecting tools with formaldehyde.

In view of environmental considerations, alternative controls to pests and diseases are being introduced under Integrated Pest Management. Infected plants and weeds must be uprooted to keep the area free of host plats for six to 12 months.

HARVESTING

Regardless of variety, the maturity of banana can be distinguished when the last leaf turns yellow. The angle formation of the fingers also determines ripeness. The rounder the angle of the fingers, the more mature the are.

Saba is harvest 15 to 16 months after planting; Lacatan, 4 to 15 months; Latundan, 12 months; Bungulan, 12 months; Cavendish, six to eight months.

Harvesting needs two people to serve as the cutter and the backer. It involves cutting deep into the middle of the trunk and letting the top fall gradually until the bunch is at the reach if the backer. The peduncle is cut long enough to facilitate handling.

Fruits for immediate shipping are harvested 5 to 10 days before ripening. Bananas for marketing are packed in crates as tightly as possible to lessen unnecessary vibrations during transport.

source: http://www.da.gov.ph


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« Reply #11 on: March 22, 2008, 02:30:21 PM »

Cocoa is grown on trees

The cocoa tree bears fruit on its trunk and branches. They are called pods.

The pods contain seeds which are called cocoa beans. The beans are made up of a seed coat, a kernel and a germ.

1. Cocoa needs a high temperature, plenty of water, and air that is always moist.
Therefore, cocoa is grown in the hot and humid regions of Africa (mainly in forest regions), Central and South America, Asia and Oceania.





What varieties of cocoa can be grown in Africa?

2. Three main varieties of cocoa are grown in Africa:
Criollo
When Criollo pods are ripe, they are long, yellow or red, with deep furrows and big warts.
This variety does not produce as much as the others but the cocoa is of very good quality.
It is grown mainly in America.



Varieties of cocoa grown in Africa



It is mainly grown in America

Forastero (Amelonado)

The pods are short, yellow, smooth without warts, with shallow furrows. This variety produces well, but the quality is not as qood as Criollo. It is crown a lot in Africa.

Trinitario This variety is a cross between Criollo and Forastero. The pods are long or short, red and yellow. It yields cocoa of fairly good quality.

Why cocoa is grown

3. People grow cocoa trees in order to sell the cocoa beans that are in the pods.
The kernel of the cocoa beans is used to make cocoa and chocolate.

In the countries of Europe and North America people eat a lot of cocoa and chocolate.

But the cocoa tree does not grow in their countries; they buy cocoa from Africa.

The countries of Africa earn a lot of money by selling their cocoa.

With this money, they can build schools and dispensaries, they can build roads and modernize the country. For Ghana, Nigeria, Ivory Coast and Cameroon, cocoa is an important export crop.

But to earn more money, these countries must sell good quality cocoa.

Sometimes they sell cocoa of poor marketing quality, badly harvested and badly fermented and dried.

Cocoa Is better and fetches a higher price when 11 has been properly harvested, fermented and dried. In order to sell a lot of cocoa beans of good quality, the grower must:

· Choose the seeds and grow the seedlings carefully.

· Choose a good site for his plantation and prepare It well.

· Look after his plantation continuously.

· Harvest the pods and prepare the beans properly.

Choosing seeds and growing seedlings

4. The grower can buy at research centres
· either selected seeds of good quality He sows the seeds in a nursery bed or in baskets. Later, he plants out the seedlings in the plantation.

· or young seedlings of good quality He plants them straight away in the plantation.

5. But some growers have no research centre nearby.
They can nevertheless have good cocoa plantations by:

· choosing their own seeds,

· sowing their seeds in a nursery bed,

· planting out their seedlings in the plantation.

Nursery bed Is the name for the place where the seeds are sown to make them germinate.

Choosing seeds

If you want to have fine cocoa trees which produce a lot of big pods, you must choose carefully the seeds you are going to sow.

6. If you choose your own seeds:
· choose the biggest pods from the trees which bear a lot of fruit.

The good quality of the tree and of the seed enters into the new plant, which will also yield many big pods.

The best seeds for sowing are those from the middle of the pod.

7. Sow the seeds as you remove them from the pod
Never keep the pods more than one week, otherwise the germ may die.

If the germ is dead, the plant will not grow.

8. In some countries cocoa seeds are often sown directly in the plantation, that is, where the trees are to grow.
But this is a bad way of sowing, for many of the plants will not grow, and you cannot choose the best seedlings.


Sowing seed sin nursery beds or in baskets

9. A good grower should sow cocoa seeds in nursery beds:
Choose a small plot, quite flat, with light and rich soil.

If the site is near a little stream, watering will be easier.

Till the soil fairly deeply, and break up all the lumps of earth so that you get a fine filth.

Make beds of soil 120 centimetres wide:

· Leave a little path of 60 centimetres between one bed and the next, so that you can walk between the beds.

· Take a piece of string and mark out little furrows in each bed.

· Leave 25 centimetres between one furrow and the next.

· In each furrow, leave 25 centimetres between seeds.

Do not push the seed in too deeply, otherwise it will not have enough air and will not grow well.



Cocoa seeds can also be sown In baskets or bags.
10. When the seedlings are lifted from the nursery bed, the roots may break and little earth remains around the roots.
To avoid this, water the beds before lifting the seed lings.
Sometimes the young seedlings do not grow well and do not gain much height.
Some of them die.

11. To make the cocoa trees grow better, sow your seeds in small baskets or polyethylene bags. These baskets or bags can be about 30 centimetres high and 20 centimetres wide. Fill them with fine soil mixed with manure. Put the baskets or bags in rows and leave a little path between the rows.



You should take good care of the asedlings in seed beds or baskets.
12. Young cocoa tree seedlings are very delicate; you must protect them from the sun. Put them in the shade.
In order to protect the seed beds or the baskets from the sun put up a screen 180 centimetres high above each bed. You can cover this screen with palm fronds.

Young seedlings need a lot of water. Water them every day.

Remove the weeds which take nourishment away from the seedlings. Look for insects and kill them, pull out diseased plants and burn them.


Cocoa seed bed under a screen

Lifting seedlings from nursery beds

13. Six months after sowing, when the seedlings have two leaves, take the young cocoa tree seedlings out of the nursery beds.
If you wait too long, the seedlings will be too old and will not grow so easily.
Remove the seedlings from the nursery beds with a spade.
Be very careful not to break the roots.
Sort out the young cocoa seedlings.
Throw away diseased seedlings and badly grown seedlings.
Use only the healthiest seedlings.

14. If you have sown your seeds in baskets, place the baskets in holes dug in the plantation.
There is no need to remove the basket, as it will rot in the earth.
If you have sown your seeds in polyethylene bags, remove the bag.
Place the ball of earth with the seedling into the hole.

Related Posts:
Growing Cocoa - Part 2 of 2

Sources:

Institut africain pour la dveloppement conomique et social
B.P. 8008, Abidjan, Cte d’Ivoire


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mikey
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« Reply #12 on: March 22, 2008, 02:36:41 PM »

Choosing the site

15. If a cocoa tree is to grow well, it needs more than anything else a soil
· of good structure,

· permeable and deep.

The cocoa tree has tap- roots. The tap- root descends straight into the soil. The branch roots go down very deep. But many small branch roots also grow near the surface.

If the soil is of good structure and contains much humus, the roots penetrate well. You can improve the soil structure by spreading manure and working it into the soil. If the soil is deep, the roots can go down to a good depth.

Never plant cocoa trees in soil with a lot of stones, or in soil where there is some hard layer.


Small surface roots

Clearing the site

16. In Africa, cocoa is grown in forest regions.
To make a plantation, you must clear the site.
But the cocoa tree needs shade, especially when it Is young.

17. The traditional method is to cut down all the trees and to burn everything.
But this is a bad method because:

· You destroy all the organic matter in the weeds, the leaves and the branches.

· You leave the soil bare to the sun or rain.

· The soil becomes less fertile.

· The cocoa trees are not protected from the sun when it is too strong.

18. Sometimes growers put banana trees or taros into the cocoa plantation, to give shade for the young cocoa trees. If these are planted long enough before the cocoa trees, they give good protection.

But if they are planted at the same time as the cocoa trees, they do not protect the young cocoa trees well enough and they take nourishment out of the soil.

19. To give shade it Is better to keep a few of the forest trees.
You should cut first all the tall weeds, the creepers and the small trees.

Make heaps of what you have cut down and arrange the heaps in rows.
It is better not to burn all the vegetation you cut. Leave It on the ground.

It protects the soil against erosion and sun. It rots and makes humus.

If you have to burn the vegetation you have cut, you must sow a cover crop.

20. Next, go through the plantation a second time:
Now cut down all the trees which might give some disease to the cocoa trees.

And cut down also all trees that give too much shade. But leave those large trees which can give no disease to the cocoa trees, and which give a lime shade

When the cocoa trees have grown taller, they need less shade.

You should gradually give them less and less shade. You should prune the big trees and cut off those branches that cast too much shade.

When the plantation is well cared for, you can cut down all the big trees.

When the cocoa trees have grown, it is better to get rid of the unwanted shade trees by using tree- killing chemical products. This way causes less damage than cutting them down.

21. In Cameroon, for example,
· Farmers always remove the following trees:

Atui (Piptadeniastrum africanum)
Tom (Erythrophloeum guineense)
Eba (Pentaclethra macrophylla)
Eyen (Distemonanthus benthamianus)
Asam (Uapaca staudtii)
Abem (Macrolobium or Berlinia)
Esabem (Macrolobium limba)
Engkm (Myrianthus arboreus)
Aseng (Musanga cecropioides)

· Leave In the plantation:

Akom (Terminalia superba)
Atol (Ficus vogeliana)
Evouvous (Aibizzia ferruginea)
Esak (Albizzia fastigiata)
Ekouk (Alstonia boonei)
Eteng (Pycnanthus kombo)

22. In Ivory Coast
· Farmers always remove the following trees:

Dabema (Piptadeniastrum africanum)
Samba (Triplochiton scleroxylon)
Bla (Childovia sanguinea)
Aiya, Kotib (Nesogordonia papaverifera)
Cola (Cola nitida)
Ehman (Corynanthe pachyceras)
Cakoua
Ntaba
Akeato (Cola spp.)
Aoussou
Boto, Kotoki(Sterculia tragacantha)
Fromager (Ceiba pentandra)
Akogaouan, Oba (Bombax spp.)
Grand Wounianb (Myrianthus preussi)
Blblendou (Treculia africana)
Inkichbi (Rauwolfia vomitoria)
Glagla (Conopharyngia)

· Leave In the plantation:

Adashia (Trema guineensis)
Iroko (Chlorophora excelsa)
Figuiers (Ficus)
Ouangrain (Allophylus africanus)
Sipo, Tiama (Entandro phragma)
Pri, Pousso ou (Funtumia)
Abalo (Combretodendron africanum)
Emien (Alstonia boonei)
Minghi, Ba (Fagara)
Oualb Nda (Pycnanthus angolensis)
Frak, Framir (Terminalia)
Akoua (Antrocaryon micraster)
Parasolier (Musanga cecropioides)
Loloti (Lannea welwitschii)
Tchiku, Tchikubi (Bridelia)Preparing to plant cocoa trees

23. With traditional methods, planting is most often done in a haphazard way.
The cocoa trees are not planted in rows.

There is not the same distance between them.

When the trees are too far apart, they do not use all the soil; when they are too close, they grow badly.

Instead, you should always plant in rows.

First mark the rows for the cocoa trees, leaving about 2.5 to 3 metres between rows.

Along each row, mark out with pegs the spots where the cocoa trees are to go.

Leave about 2.5 to 3 metres between trees.

In this way you can plant about 1000 to 1600 seedlings per hectare.

24. Digging the holes

Before planting cocoa trees, the grower must dig holes in order to stir the earth and loosen it.

Dig the holes two months before planting the cocoa trees.

When you are digging the hole, do not mix together the soil from above and the soil from below:

Make two separate heaps.

Planting cocoa trees in a plantation

Sometimes growers sow cocoa seeds straight away in the plantation. This is a bad thing to do.
It is better to put into the plantation either young cocoa seedlings from your own nursery beds, or cocoa seedlings bought from a research centre.

25. A few hours before lifting the seedlings from the nursery beds, water the soil. Then take the seedlings out of the nursery beds with a spade or a hoe. Be very careful not to break the roots.
Next sort out the cocoa seedlings. Throw away diseased plants and plants that have a twisted tap- root.
You can dip the roots of the seedlings in liquid mud, so that the cocoa plants take root again easily.

26. When to plant cocoa trees Plant cocoa trees at the beginning of the rainy sea son.
Choose a day when the soil is moist and when the sky is cloudy. Plant the young cocoa trees when they are about 6 months old.

27. How to plant cocoa trees A few days before planting, fill in the holes you have dug. At the bottom of the hole, put the soil you have dug out from the top, and on top put the soil you have dug out from below. You may mix the soil with manure.



How to plant cocoa trees
When you are ready to plant, make a small hole. In this small hole place your young cocoa seedling. If you have sown your seeds in baskets or bags, make a hole big enough to hold the root ball with the cocoa seedling. Be very careful not to twist the tap- root.

Do not cover the crown with earth.
Pack the soil down well around the tap- root.
For the first few days, protect the cocoa seedling from the sun.
If there are palm trees in your village, use a palm frond.

Taking care of the plantation

28. When the cocoa trees have been planted, the work is not finished.
The grower still has a lot of work to do to look after his cocoa trees.

A grower who does not look after his plantation properly cannot harvest big pods and will not earn much money.

To look after your plantation properly you must:

· Replace seedlings that have not grown

· Remove weeds and keep the soil covered

· Prune the cocoa trees

· Apply fertilizer

· Protect the cocoa trees from insects and diseases.

REPLACING MISSING SEEDLINGS

29. Sometimes certain cocoa seedlings do not grow well. They remain small or die.
During the months following the day when you planted your seedlings, you must always look to see whether the cocoa trees are growing well.

If you see diseased or dead cocoa trees, pull them out and burn them, and also those encircling them in case of swollen shoot disease (see paragraph 42). In their place, plant other young cocoa seedlings, from among those that you have kept in the nursery bed or in baskets.

Weeding and soil cover

30. Many weeds grow among the cocoa tree rows.
You must not let weeds take nourishment away from the cocoa trees.
When the cocoa trees are young, you should weed 4 or 5 times every year.

When the cocoa trees are bigger, they cast a lot of shade and so few weeds will grow. It will be enough to weed once a year. When you are cultivating be very careful not to damage the trunk and roots of the cocoa trees.

31. Between the rows of cocoa trees, you should not leave the soil bare.
You should cover the soil either with cut weeds or with palm fronds, if available.

In this way the soil is protected against sun and erosion; it stays moist and cool.

When the weeds rot, they give the soil organic matter.

You can also sow a cover crop, for instance legumes. This will give the soil good protection against sun and erosion.


You can also sow a cover crop

Pruning cocoa trees

32. The cocoa tree is a tree that develops well. It has a single, straight trunk. A crown of 3 to 5 main branches forms about 1.5 metres above ground level.

33. Sometimes, during the first year, several shoots form on the trunk. Cut off these shoots and leave only the strongest. Sometimes the crown forms too low down, at less than 1 metre above ground level.

A new crown will then form at a good height, and the first crown will stop growing.



Choose a shoot which grows straight up and let it develop

34. Always cut out all dead branches, dry twigs and suckers.
A sucker is a twig that grows upward out of the trunk. Cut off the suckers very close to the trunk.


Always cut out all dead branches

35. When a cocoa tree gets old, it no longer yields many pods. But you can make cocoa trees young again by letting one or two suckers grow low down on the trunk where they can develop their own roots. Then cut down the old trunk, and you will again have a cocoa tree that yields many pods.


Old cocoa tree

Applying fertilizers

Fertilizers cost a lot of money.
So the grower should use fertilizers only when this will make him earn more money.

36. When you have tended your cocoa trees, when you have hoed the weeds, then you should apply fertilizer.
Spread fertilizer around each cocoa tree, but be careful not to put any on the trunk, the branches or the leaves of the cocoa tree: otherwise the fertilizer will burn the free.
Spread the fertilizer in aring around the trunk at a distance of about 1 metre from it, where most of its small roots are.
Apply fertilizer twice a year: in April and September.



37. It is useless to apply fertilizers In a plantation that Is not well cared for.
A grower who does not prune his cocoa trees and who does not hoe the weeds should not apply any fertilizer.
If the plantation is not cared for properly, fertilizers do nothing except feed the trunks of the cocoa trees, the suckers and the weeds.
The grower loses his money.

38. Different soils have different fertilizer needs.
Ask the extension service how much fertilizer to use.
For example, in Ivory Coast:

· on the more sandy soils, along the coast, use compound fertilizer, which contains nitrogen, phosphoric acid and potash: fertilizer formula 13- 10- 15;

· on the more granitic soils of the interior, use another compound fertilizer: formula 12- 15- 18.

The quantities for each tree are as follows:

· during the first two years: in April: 125 grammes; in September: 125 grammes.

· during the third year and from then on: in April: 250 grammes; in September: 250 grammes.

Protection from insects and diseases

The most dangerous insects are the following:

39. Capsids
These insects prick the twigs and pods. At the place where they make a hole, the tree dries out and the sap no longer circulates. Young trees attacked by capsids often die. To control capsids, use Lindane or Aldrin.

40. Borers
The larvae of these insects bore holes in the trunk or branches. You can control borers with DDT or Dieldrin.



Borers

The most dangerous diseases that attack cocoa trees are the following:

41. Black pod disease
This is caused by a fungus which chiefly attacks the pods.
If attacked, the pods rot and die.
Control this disease by picking off diseased pods and burning them.
You can prevent the disease from spreading by spraying the sound pods with copper preparations.

42. Swollen shoot disease
This is a very serious disease, which has caused much damage in Ghana.
You will see that the leaves are mottled. Sometimes some twigs become very thick and the tree soon dies. Mealy bugs carried about by ants can transmit the disease from one tree to another.
Control this disease by cutting down diseased trees and leaving them to wither.
Remember that, when a diseased tree has been discovered and cut down, all the trees circling it must be cut down also to avoid the spread of infection.

Harvesting the pods

43. The tree makes its first flowers after two years. But in order not to tire the tree, you should cut off the first flowers.
From these you will therefore get no fruit.
There are two harvests each year: a small harvest at the beginning of the rainy season, a big harvest at the end of the rainy season.

44. Do not pick all the pods at the same time.
Pick only pods that are ripe, whether yellow or red. Leave on the tree any pods that are not ripe, that are still a little green.
Go through the plantation every fortnight to pick the ripe pods.
Never pick the pods by pulling them off: if you do, you will spoil your tree.
You should cut the stem of the pod with a machete.


You should cut the stem of the pod

Processing cocoa beans

45. Opening the pods.
Do not wait more than 4 days to open the pods. Open the pods by hitting them with a thick piece of wood. Take the beans out of the pods and put them in baskets. Then carry them to the place where they are to ferment. Do not leave the broken husks on the field. They can be used to make compost.

46. Why cocoa beans are fermented.
We have seen that the cocoa bean consists of a seed coat, a kernel and a germ. Cocoa beans are fermented so as to destroy the seed coat, kill the germ and give the cocoa a good taste.



47. How to ferment the beans.
Often cocoa growers ferment the beans in heaps. They chose a flat and dry spot, cover it with banana leaves, make a heap of cocoa beans and cover the heap with banana leaves. The beans ferment well if the heap is stirred from time to time. It Is much better to ferment the beans In boxes.
Use boxes with holes in the bottom. Place these boxes on supports, for instance stones.
The juice runs off at the bottom of the boxes through the holes. After two days, take the beans out of the box, stir them around well and put them into another box. To make this work easier, you can stack the boxes one on top of the other.
Never leave the beans In the same box for more than two days. Fermentation takes 6 to 10 days. The beans are purple at the beginning, and turn reddish when they are fermented.



Drying cocoa beans

48. When the beans are well fermented, they must be dried. Cocoa beans may be dried in the sun. Spread the beans on boards raised 1 metre above ground level. The layer of beans should not be very thick; not more than 4 centimetres. Stir the beans often and protect them from rain.
To protect from rain, you can make a little shelter and slide the boards under the shelter every night and when it rains:
This is called a sliding tray drier.
Drying cocoa beans takes live to ten days.

49. In forest regions where the climate is very moist, cocoa beans do not dry at all well.
Badly dried beans are of poor quality. You get less money for them.
In such regions several growers can get together and build a modern drier.
Spread the beans on a concrete slab set well above floor level.
Light a fire underneath, or allow hot air to pass through drums to heat the concrete slab.
Then the cocoa beans will dry better.
In this way one man alone can take care of drying the harvest of several growers.
He should not let the fire get too hot, to prevent the beans from becoming smoky.
He should stir them often so that they do not burn.

50. When the cocoa is quite dry, the beans are sorted.
Remove all the:
· flat beans
· germinated beans
· mouldy beans
· broken beans.

Keep only good beans.
Put these good beans into sacks.
Keep the sacks in a dry place well protected against animals.

Finally sell your sacks of cocoa. Good- quality cocoa is cocoa which has been:
· well harvested,
· well fermented,
· well dried.

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mikey
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« Reply #13 on: March 22, 2008, 02:44:57 PM »

The guava (Psidium guajava Linn.) is one of the distributed fruit tree crop in the tropics (like the Philippines) and subtropics and found to be indigenous to the American tropics. It has a great potential for extensive commercial production because of its ease of culture, high nutritional value and popularity of processed products. Most common areas where guavas are grown in abundance are: open areas, second-growth forests, backyard or as a part of a mixed orchard. However, at present, there are no existing records for big planting and production of guava in the Philippines.

Economic Importance

The fruit of guava is very rich in Vitamin C, which is substantially higher than what is found in citrus. It is also a good source of Vitamin A and other important elements. The fruit contains a large amount of citric, lactic, malic, oxalic and acetic acids and trace amount of formic acid.

The ripe fruit is usually eaten as dessert. It can also be utilized in many ways for making jellies, jam, paste, juice, baby foods, puree, beverage base, syrup, wine and other processed products. It may be eaten sliced with cream and sugar and as ingredient in cakes and pies. It is also used in dishes like “sinigang”.

Some parts of guava tree have medicinal and commercial usefulness. The bark and leaves are used in childbirth to expel the placenta. The leaves can be made into tea and astringent decoction can cure stomachache and act as vermifuge. When crushed or chewed, it is used for toothache treatment; pounded leaves may also be applied locally for rheumatism; can also be used for dyeing and tanning. The bark is sometimes used in complex cosmetics for hystero-epilepsy. Its wood is moderately strong and durable indoor and useful for handle and in carpentry and turnery.

Varieties / Strains

Supreme - The Supreme varieties from Florida. It is generally high yielding and produces a thick white flesh fruit of good quality for preserving or eating fresh. Fruit shape is ovate with distinct corrugation, 6.3 cm long, 5.5 cm in diameter and weighing 65 grams. The three is moderately prolific and regular bearing. When fully ripe, the fruit is bright yellow in color. The flavor in the inner pulp is sweet but the outer skin is slightly bitter and possesses a distinct strawberry wine odor, which is slightly astringent. It is moderately resistant to anthracnose and fruitfly but susceptible to leaf folder and aphids.

Red Indian Rolfs and Ruby - the fruit is ovate, 6.5 cm long, 5 cm in diameter with thin, smooth, medium green skin, weighing 75 grams. The fruit pulp is about 10 mm deep and red when fully ripe and has less pronounced corrugation. It is large seeded, sparsely populated but very sweet, juicy, crunchy and possesses a strong aroma. The tree is very prolific, regular bearing but easily attack by bats, moderately to anthracnose and oriental fruitfly.

Crosses between Ruby and Supreme - a large, white flesh variety from California, U.S.A.

Seedless variety - this variety has a fleshy layer, thick, that almost no seed cavity remained.

Goyena Quezo de Bola (NSIC 02 Gv-01) - this is NSIC guava variety approved in 2002, being a prolific yielder possessing yellowish green color of skin, finely smooth texture with pleasant aroma and weigh 575 g/fruit.

The other outstanding varieties grown in the Philippines are Bangkok, Java, Vietnamese and Hawaiian.

Soil and Climatic Requirement

Soil - guava does well on different soils from open sand to rather compact clay; from strongly acid (pH 4.5) to medium alkaline (pH 8.2) For good fruit production, guava should be grown in
rich, deep, well drained soils high in organic matter.

Climate - a rather dry climate is favorable for guava production. It may thrive best in the tropics at elevation from sea level to 5,000 feet with a tropical or near tropical temperature requirements.

Nursery Practices

Seed germination and care of seedlings - guava seeds should be thoroughly cleaned soon after extraction from the fruits. It is necessary to treat the seeds with fungicides to prevent damping off.
They should be planted early to ensure high germination. Germinated seeds in beds or boxes with a medium of fine sand or an equal mixture of sand and topsoil. Sow them evenly in the furrows 2-3 cm apart and lightly cover with soil 0.5 ? 1.0 cm deep. Water regularly to keep the soil moist.

Protect the seedlings against insect pests and diseases by spraying insecticides and/or fungicides. A month after emergence or when the first true leaves have formed transplant them in individual containers, like polybags using medium clay loam soil mixed with compost. Partial shading is necessary until the plant has recovered its growth. The plant is ready for planting or as rootstocks after one year

Propagation - guava is usually propagated by seeds. It can be propagated asexually through root suckers, root cutting, grafting, marcotting, budding, grafting and inarching.

Seed Propagation - propagation of guava is nearly always by seeds. Guavas are open-pollinated producing seedlings, which are highly variable in character. Variability in seedlings can be minimized by hand self-pollination or individual flowers.

Root suckers and root cuttings - the use of root suckers is probably the oldest method of asexually propagating guava. Root suckers are induced by severing roots to a few feet from the base of the plants and these are transferred when roots and shoots are established. Root cutting is done by cutting about 12-20 cm long parts of any butt very small or very large roots. These can be induced to sprout and form new plants provided it is placed in a suitable medium in a well-drained propagating bed. Both the use of root suckers and root cuttings are relatively slow methods of propagating guava.

Budding - an efficient vegetative propagation is by budding selected variety on seedling rootstock. Both the patch bud and forkert techniques are recommended onto seedling rootstock. The diameter of seedling stock and budwood should be from 15-25 mm. Budwood should be mature, bark no longer green. Condition the budwood by cutting off the leaves of selected branches 10-14 days before removing the branches for budwood. During this period the buds become more enlarged and grow more readily after budding.

Air layering - for this method, low branches of guava are bent down, about 12 - 15 cm of the branch is covered with soil and kept damp to induce root formation.

Stem cuttings - propagation by stem cuttings is made from the young wood at the end of the branches. These are rooted in sandy loam soil in propagating bed in a nursery house or shed. Guava stem cuttings treated with Indole Butyric Acid (IBA) or Napthalene Acetic Acid (NAA) proved to be successful for rooting and produce numerous and vigorous roots.

Cultural Practices

Land Preparation - plow the area once or two times followed by several harrowings to completely pulverize and expose the soil. It is best done during the dry season.

Stake the field and dig holes at a distance of 5 - 7 meters to accommodate 277 seedlings in a hectare. In fertile soils, wider spacing is desirable.

Planting - the planting materials are transplanted into the holes earlier prepared after pruning some of the leaves and removing the plants from the containers. The plants are aligned with other trees in all directions. The best time to plant is at the onset or during the rainy season. Weeding/cultivation ? shallow cultivation around the base of the plant is recommended to prevent root injury, incorporate organic matter into the soil and to control weeds especially when trees need all the available soil moisture.

Pruning - pruning is a must in guava production. This is done if a certain form is desired like growing the tree with a spreading or symmetrical or limited crown or to keep number of branches. However, when the trees have established a strong framework and started to bear fruit, little training is required. The root sprouts; low-lying branches, disease infected and other dead branches, which are unnecessary just, have to be eliminated.

Fertilization - guava trees should be kept healthy through application of fertilizers from the time they are planted until they continue to produce fruits.

In the absence of definite information regarding the fertilizer requirements of guava in the Philippines, it is about 100-500 g ammonium sulfate will be applied around the base of each tree twice a year. The fertilizer will be applied one month after planting and 6 months after or towards the end of the rainy season. The amount will be increased, as the tree grows bigger. At the start of fruiting, each tree should be given about 300 - 500 g complete fertilizer, preferably one containing more nitrogen and potassium per application. At the peak of production (about 10 -18 years, an annual application of 2 kg or more complete fertilizer per tree, split in application may be required to sustain growth development and production of fruits.

Irrigation - no irrigation is required when trees are planted during the rainy season. But in case of prolonged dry weather, the orchard should be irrigated every 10 days or as often as maybe necessary. Irrigation when applied during fruit development can increase production through fruit size.

Intercropping - while the guava trees are not yet fully productive, intercropping of short season crops like vegetables, leguminous crops, root crops and other annual crops can be done. Aside from added income it will also prevent the growth of weeds and help cultivate the land in the orchard. However, this intercrop should be removed once the main crop becomes too crowded.

Control of Insect Pests and Diseases

Insect pests:

Oriental fruit fly (Daucus dorsalis Hendel). The larvae burrow through the ripe fruits making them unfit for human consumption.

Control: Bagging the fruit. To avoid infestation, harvest fruit at the earliest possible time. Collect the infested fruits into a kerosene can with a thin layer of sand at the bottom and destroy the larva/pupa by heat

Aphids (Aphis gosypii Glover) - the pest damage the plant by feeding on young growth causing the curling of leaves.

Control: Spray with appropriate insecticide (like malathion) when necessary. Aphids are fed upon by lady beetles and by maggot of syrphid flies. They also parasitized by minute parasitic hymenopterans.

Mealy Bugs and Scale Insects:

Common White Mealy Bug (Planococcus lilacinus Ckll). It attacks and draws plant sap from the young shoots and fruits of guava. Its actual damage is economically insignificant, however, the ants that it attracts are nuisance when picking the fruits.

Control: Seldom needs remedial measures

Green Scale Insects (Coccus viridis Green). It is a soft scale that infests the young shoots, mostly on leaves. It is oval in shape, about 2 mm long, foliage green in color with an irregular V-shaped black on its back.

Control: Use of entomogenous fungi effective especially during rainy season. Use of small wash parasite, Coccophagus tibialis

Moth (Zuezera coffeae Nietn). Its pink caterpillar bores into young upright growing stems tunneling the stem center where it feeds and develops; extruding stem may suddenly die or break off at the level of the exit hole.

Control: If discovered early enough, the infested stem may be saved by inserting a coconut leaf midrib into the tunnel and pushing it in as far as it would go to speak and kill the caterpillar inside. If infested twigs has broken off spear the larva; dead infested twigs that have not broken off should be broken and the larva on pupa speared.

Diseases:

Spotting of leaves and fruits ? caused by the parasitic alga, Cepaleuros mycoides Darst., is rather severe on some types and varieties in humid areas.

Control: Spraying with a Copper Fungicide

Anthracnose or Cracker - caused by Gloeasprrium psidii G. Del. The fungus produces two kinds of symptoms. Formation of cankerous spots throughout the fruit surface. These cankers are circular, dry and raised. In some areas, however, infected fruits becomes undersized misshaped, hard and dry.

Typical sunken soft lesions usually produced by anthracnose can be observed on ripe fruits. Under moist conditions, pinkish masses of spores can be seen on lesions surface. It also causes dieback of plants. On the leaves, the disease produces angular, rusty brown spots of varying sizes, usually 2-5 mm in diameter. During the rainy season, the blight of shoots is a common symptom.

Control: No control measure has ever been recommended although spray of fungicides can be recommended.

Wilting - caused by Gloremella psidii Sheld is another disease known to attack guava. The disease causes mummification and blackening of immature fruits.

Processing and Utilization

Preparation of Guava Products

Guava Wine

Select ripe and sound fruits. Cut into quarters. To 1 part fruits, add 2 parts water. Boil until the fruits are soft. Strain and measure the extract. To every three (3) parts extract, add 1 part sugar. Stir and measure the extract. Cool. To every 15 to 15 liters, add one-tablespoon yeast. Place in demijohns to ferment. This will take from two weeks or longer. When the fermentation is completed, transfer into wine barrels and age for at least one year.

Guava Jelly

Select equal mixture of green and ripe guavas. Wash and cut into halves or quarters. For every kilo of guavas, add 2 liters of water. Boil in enamel or stainless steel basin for 30 minutes. Strain thru a cheesecloth bag. Crush the pulp and boil again, using 1-? liters of water.

Strain and combine the 2 extracts. Measure. To every cup of the extract, add a cup of sugar and 1 tablespoon of calamansi juice. Boil once to dissolve sugar and strain. Cook over strong fire until the temperature reaches 1070-1080 until a soft ball is formed when the jelly is dropped in a cup of water. Pour in sterilized dry glass jars.

source: http://www.pcarrd.dost.gov.ph

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mikey
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« Reply #14 on: March 22, 2008, 02:48:15 PM »

They are red and seeded on the outside, fleshy and juicy in the inside. They have this small, regal looking, green leafy cap and stem that adorn its crown. That’s fresh, plump strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) for you. But their fine-looking appearance does not last long. Strawberries are delicate, requiring gentle handling to prevent bruising.

In the Philippines, strawberries are only grown in cool areas like Benguet and Baguio. And for those who love strawberries, this type of cool-loving fruit has to undergo the long travel so that it could still come out fresh for customers in the far cities and provinces. Unfortunately, problem in transporting continues to hound the strawberry industry. A lot of the strawberry growers in Benguet and Baguio still use the old ways of packing and transporting their products i.e., through rough bamboo baskets and kaing. Thus, postharvest losses are high.

The processing of strawberries such as jams, jellies, juices, and sweets is a good solution to avoid their spoilage. Unfortunately, the industry still lacks the facilities to do this. Most of the processed products like jams are still sold in big containers and bulky bottles making their transport still a big hassle.

Another problem of the industry is the non-availability of varieties suited in the humid areas of La Trinidad. Although strawberries are considered a high value crop, produce remains to be sold in the sidewalks and small booths.

In increasing its production, potential areas should also be established. Planting strawberries could be a good alternative source of livelihood for upland farmers. Growing strawberries could substitute vegetable production in some areas since it is now becoming less profitable due to the coming in of cheap imported vegetables and the growing of upland vegetables in lowland areas, Improving strawberry production through integrated R&D program particularly in Mindanao.

Related to the lack of high yielding and suitable varieties of strawberries, pest and diseases also pose as the leading problems of growers. Until now, there is no protocol on the production of planting materials for strawberry and non-availability of certified planting materials which farmers can use. These contribute to the deterioration of yield and quality of strawberries.

Given this scenario and problems hounding the strawberry industry, the Bureau of Agricultural Research (BAR) has recently supported an integrated program on strawberry, Integrated Strawberry Research and Development Program (ISRDP), with the Highland Agriculture and Resources Research and Development Consortium (HARRDEC) and the Regional Resources Research and Development Network (RARRDEN) as coordinating agencies. The lead agency for this integrated program is the Benguet State University in cooperation with the Bureau of Plant Industry - Baguio National Crops Research Development Center (BPIBNCRDC), Department of Agriculture Regional Field Unit (DA-RFU), Office of the Provincial Agriculturist- Benguet Province (OPA), and the strawberry growers, processors, and retailers.

The integrated program on strawberry comprises of five major projects, each addressing the major problems facing today’s strawberry production in country. These are:

1) varietal development, conservation and production of planting materials;

2) production and postharvest technology assessment and intervention (maturity indices and handling);

3) integrated pest management (mite pests);

4) product development and marketing and;

5) establishment of strawberry databank and technology transfer. The project started in 2005 and continues to 2006.

The integrated program is implemented in consultation with all stakeholders of the industry. Concerned stakeholders include the Research Development and Extension (RDE) sectors, strawberry farmers, processors, retailers (including high end market sector), and consumers.

For the project on Varietal development, conservation and production of planting materials, it hopes to:

1) collect, characterize, and maintain a strawberry germplasm seed bank including seed and runner for local genotypes of strawberries and some foreign collections;

2) identify potential genotypes and hybrids;

3) develop protocol in certification of planting materials and;

4) produce at least 5,000 certified runner planting materials that can be availed of by farmers.

The project on “Production and postharvest technology assessment and intervention (maturity indices and handling)” aims to:

1) identify the maturity indices in harvesting berries for fresh market;

2) identify at least three kinds of packaging materials for pre and post-harvest handling;

3) establish one handling method from harvesting to marketing and;

4) establish protocol for pre-cooling fresh berries after harvest.

For the “Integrated Pest Management (mite pests)” project, it is expected to:

1) introduce an efficient predator of spider mites on strawberry; and

2) develop mass rearing and field release techniques for the predator.

For projects 4 and 5 on “Product development and marketing” and “Establishment of strawberry databank and technology transfer,” the objectives are to:

1) develop and introduce new recipes in the market, particularly low sugar and sugar-free jam and spread, and

2) identify one-serving packaging materials for jam and spread (for project 4); and 1) establish database for strawberry, and

3) conduct promotion for the industry (for project 5).

The Bureau of Agricultural Research (BAR) funded the ISRDP in its effort to boost the strawberry industry through R&D particularly on increasing its yield in the local market and improving its postharvest technologies.

source: Rita T. dela Cruz of http://www.bar.gov.p
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