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mikey

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Philippine Coffee Gets Its Kick Back:
« on: September 25, 2008, 09:42:43 AM »
Coffee Gets Its Kick Back
Farmers worldwide are gaining from Nestle’s sustainable agriculture initiatives and practices. Now, it’s the Filipino’s turn.

To address farmers’ agricultural problems and the country’s dwindling domestic production of coffee as well as its growing demand, Nestle Philippines developed a coffee-based sustainable farming system focused on bringing back the vibrancy of the coffee sector.

Nestle Philippines Agricultural Services Department Head Glicerio Joel Lumagbas said, “It was 2003 when we started developing this farming system. We brought Switzerland-based Sustainable Agriculture Initiatives (SAI) chamber Mr. Patrick Leheup in the country to spearhead its first convention. The response was successful, with 15 major food companies present that day, all of which were keen and open to develop the agricultural activities in the country.”

SAI was originally founded by Nestle S.A., the mother company of leading coffee brand Nescafe, along with other renowned agribusiness companies to promote the improvement of farmers’ productivity through livelihood programs and conservation of land, soil and water.

Nestle Philippines officially kicked off its sustainable agriculture program in 2004, focusing primarily on the coffee sector. Presently, they have lo demo farms set up across the country-six in Mindanao, two in Visayas and two in Luzon. These farms house farmers and experts that give lectures and demonstrations of the best practices of sustainable coffee farming.

Lumagbas added, “Modern farming practices and first-hand information become easier and more reliable for coffee farmers when they hear it directly from other farmers who have been successful in the industry. This is why we made it a point that the farm owners themselves give the demos and lectures. Additionally, we make the farmers realize that coffee’s existing market continually grows each year.”

This, he said, promotes not only camaraderie among the farmers, but it also encourages the practice of sustainable coffee farming to persuade them to plant what they call `companion crops’. These companion crops include peanuts, mungbeans, corn, silage and other root crops that farmers believe have a ready market.

The feedback so far has been enthusiastic. More and more farmers realize the benefits of the SA1 activities and are eager to adapt them. These benefits include getting bigger income within the first year, as opposed to the normal scheme of waiting two or three years before getting profits.

Their other success stories include the Tara Woods Coffee Farm in Tanauan, Batangas and the Talon Family Farm School in Tuy, Batangas. Lumagbas also cited a farmer in Sultan Kudarat in Mindanao who was able to earn P80,000 for his first year of farming two kinds of peanuts, who then advanced to other high-value crops afterward.

These model farms serve as satellite training centers for farmers in Luzon so that they won’t have to go to Mindanao to undergo extensive coffee technological trainings.

Nestle Philippines, which has been helping the coffee farmers for more than 30 years now, is -offering the SAI platform to interested farmers for free. Lumagbas continued, “We encourage them to join the three-day technological seminar at the Nestle Experimental Demonstration Farm, a free training that includes boarding and lodging costs. All the participants need to spend on are their transportation fees and their allowance.”

Nestle’s technical assistance program and direct procurement systems will give farmers access to the market and different buying stations, whereas before, farmers have to directly sell their crops to traders. Now, Nestle even accepts a minimum of half-a-sack deliveries for the first deliveries.

At present, Nestle Philippines’s SAI platform is supported by 20 companies from different industries, divided into five working groups that focus on production of cereals, coffee, dairy, fruits and potatoes. These are comprised of Groupe Danone, McDonald’s, Ecom, Efico, Kraft, Neuman Kaffee Group, Sara Lee, Tchibo, Volcafe, Friesland Cobeco, Campira, Fontera, IDF, Unilever, McCain, Findus and Dole.

All these companies are determined to create and sustain a productive, competitive and efficient way of producing agricultural products, while protecting and improving the environment and the socio-economic conditions of local communities.

But even before the SAI platform was established, Nescafe was already spearheading campaigns towards improved coffee farming practices and the betterment of the coffee farmer’s lives in general. The company built coffee buying stations across the country, including Davao, Iloilo, Isabela, Zamboanga, Agusan del Stir, Cotabato, Palawan, Tuguegarao, Solano, Bohol, Calamba, Bacolod, Alabang and Cavite, wherein farmers can sell their crops at guaranteed actual market prices.

Nestle has also initiated the Coffee Based Sustainable Farming System (CBSFS) which encourages farmers to plant other crops alongside coffee. They have headed seminars and trainings of coffee suppliers for eventual certification as Common Code for the Coffee Community (4C) coffee suppliers. 4C is a global association that aims for the realization of the economic, environmental and social sustainability in the mainstream coffee sector.

Farmers from other tropical countries are also gaining from the SAI practices. In Guatemala, where green coffee production is abundant, Volcafe and Nestle instigated a program that helped improve both the social and environmental sustainability of the country.

This began in March 2004, starting in the village of Ojercaibal, where they focused on the construction of two classrooms, implementation of highly efficient stoves to reduce the consumption of firewood and prevent health hazards, installation of sufficient drinking water systems, introduction of basic medicines for the local health clinic and the planting of avocado trees for each family to further promote the country’s reforestation.

Meanwhile, in El Salvador, NKG and Deutsche Gesellschaft (GTZ) initiated a sustainable production and processing program of Arabica green coffee. This sought to promote the farming of the crop, reinforce existing farming organizations and educate the farmers on the best production methods and develop a practical system that will further sustain the eventual commercialization of its coffee sector.

And now, Filipino farmers, like the rest of the world, will get more than just a whiff of this development. Nestle Philippines aims to position the foundations of a long-term business and identify the industry’s opportunities to generate income for our local farmers and their families.



mikey

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Re: Philippine Coffee Gets Its Kick Back:
« Reply #1 on: September 27, 2008, 12:04:15 PM »
Coffee - good for diabetes
farmeric February 5th, 2008

click image to see beautiful shots of coffee!
 
The morning of our childhood always began with a steaming hot, aromatic cup of coffee. Freshly brewed, barako coffee harvested, dried, and ground right in our home.

No one bothered to ask why we, children as tender as five or six years old, were allowed to drink the wicked brew so early in the day, and that early in our life. In Batangas, coffee-drinking is a daily, sometimes hourly, habit way of life, shared by entire families at breakfast, or at any time of night and day.

We drank coffee as we ate a breakfast of fried rice and dried fish before dashing off to school. We’d dunk our pandesal into it till the bread went soggy and unrecognizable but seductively delicious to our young taste.


Back then, we didn’t know coffee, like X-rated movies, was for adults only. We were just as clueless as to its effects on our healt. Innocently, it was probably coffee that kept us wide awake at school, active for the most part, and driven to succeed.

So, what’s wrong with coffee? If we ourselves took part of it as early as those pre-school years, why do today’s parents, including myself, discourage, if not prevent, their young kids from drinking it?

Coffee is said to be healthier than what we think of it, says study by US scientists, who claim coffee probably contributes far more healthy antioxidants to our diet that fruits and vegetables. click image to see beautiful shots of coffee!

According to a DPA report, scientists measured the antioxidant content of more than 100 different foods, including fruits, vegetables, nuts, spices, oils, and beverages. The findings were then combined with data from the US Department of Agriculture on each item’s contribution to the average American diet.

They found out that coffee was the biggest source of antioxidants per serving and level of of consumption. It was followed by black tea, bananas, dry beans, and corn.

Prof. Joe Vinson, head researcher at Scranton University in Pennsylvania said: ‘ Americans get more of their antioxidants from coffee that any other dietary source.

The study revealed that both caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee appeared to providesimilar antioxidant levels.

Antioxidants are the body’s agents against harmful free radicals and destructive molecules that damage cells and DNA. They bring to the human body various health benefits such as protection against heart disease and cancer.

In recent years, studies have shown that coffee-drinking could help reduce risk of liver and colon cancer, type 2 diabetes, and Parkinson’s disease. Such an observation is shared by Dr. Gerry H. Tan, chief of the section of endocrinology, diabetes, and metabolism of the College of Medicine at Cebu Doctors University.

Dr. Tan says, ‘I am not drinking coffee to prevent diabetes, but since I enjoy it every morning, the results of several studies that it can prevent diabetes is an extra -benefit to me’.

click image to see beautiful shots of coffee!



Some facts: A study of Finnish men and women published in the Journal of American Medical Association in 2004 said increased coffee consumption is associated with decreasing risk of developing type 2 diabetes.On the other hand, the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study published in the American Journal of Epidimeology in September 2006, involving 12, 204 nondiabetic middle aged men and women showed a significant reduction in the risk of developing diabetes with coffee consumption.

Even the Harvard School of Medicine reported in its 2006 Diabetes Care that data collected from more than 80,000 female nurses showed that coffee consumption resulted in 50 percent reduction in the risk of developing diabetes.

The result merely echoed findings from an earlier research by the same institution conducted in 2004, also involving nurses. It was called the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study and the Brigham and Women’s Hospital-Based Nurses Health Study published in the January 6, 2004 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine.

The study, which involved 41,934 men and 84,276 women from 1980 to 1998 showed that men who drank more than six cups of caffeinated coffee per day reduced their risk of type 2 diabetes by more than 50 percent as compared to men who didn’t drink coffee.

The same study showed that women who drank six or more cups of coffee per day reduced the risk of type 2 diabetes by nearly 30 percent.
click image to see beautiful shots of coffee! 

Other studies pointing to the same conclusion were conducted by other medical researchers and published in the Archives of internal Medicine in 2006 and the Journal of American Medical Association between coffee and diabetes did not differ substantially according to sex, obesity, or region.Dr. Tan starts seeing patients as early as 7 a.m. To keep himself active, throughout the day, a cup of coffee keeps him company.

‘I also use my coffee to trick my tummy from growling for food, a trick I learned to maintain my weight,’ he says. Tan cites a March 2006 issue of the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition which showed that coffee intake can make one lose weight, albeit only minimal.

As doctor specializing in diabetes, Tan reminds that one has to take care of his diet and be physically active. Avoid stress, or have less of it, and get at least seven hours of sleep every night. Stress and sleep debt are the new major risk factors in the development of diabetes.



mikey

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Re: Philippine Coffee Gets Its Kick Back:
« Reply #2 on: September 27, 2008, 12:06:32 PM »
Coffee - good for diabetes
farmeric February 5th, 2008

click image to see beautiful shots of coffee!
 
The morning of our childhood always began with a steaming hot, aromatic cup of coffee. Freshly brewed, barako coffee harvested, dried, and ground right in our home.

No one bothered to ask why we, children as tender as five or six years old, were allowed to drink the wicked brew so early in the day, and that early in our life. In Batangas, coffee-drinking is a daily, sometimes hourly, habit way of life, shared by entire families at breakfast, or at any time of night and day.

We drank coffee as we ate a breakfast of fried rice and dried fish before dashing off to school. We’d dunk our pandesal into it till the bread went soggy and unrecognizable but seductively delicious to our young taste.


Back then, we didn’t know coffee, like X-rated movies, was for adults only. We were just as clueless as to its effects on our healt. Innocently, it was probably coffee that kept us wide awake at school, active for the most part, and driven to succeed.

So, what’s wrong with coffee? If we ourselves took part of it as early as those pre-school years, why do today’s parents, including myself, discourage, if not prevent, their young kids from drinking it?

Coffee is said to be healthier than what we think of it, says study by US scientists, who claim coffee probably contributes far more healthy antioxidants to our diet that fruits and vegetables. click image to see beautiful shots of coffee!

According to a DPA report, scientists measured the antioxidant content of more than 100 different foods, including fruits, vegetables, nuts, spices, oils, and beverages. The findings were then combined with data from the US Department of Agriculture on each item’s contribution to the average American diet.

They found out that coffee was the biggest source of antioxidants per serving and level of of consumption. It was followed by black tea, bananas, dry beans, and corn.

Prof. Joe Vinson, head researcher at Scranton University in Pennsylvania said: ‘ Americans get more of their antioxidants from coffee that any other dietary source.

The study revealed that both caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee appeared to providesimilar antioxidant levels.

Antioxidants are the body’s agents against harmful free radicals and destructive molecules that damage cells and DNA. They bring to the human body various health benefits such as protection against heart disease and cancer.

In recent years, studies have shown that coffee-drinking could help reduce risk of liver and colon cancer, type 2 diabetes, and Parkinson’s disease. Such an observation is shared by Dr. Gerry H. Tan, chief of the section of endocrinology, diabetes, and metabolism of the College of Medicine at Cebu Doctors University.

Dr. Tan says, ‘I am not drinking coffee to prevent diabetes, but since I enjoy it every morning, the results of several studies that it can prevent diabetes is an extra -benefit to me’.

click image to see beautiful shots of coffee!



Some facts: A study of Finnish men and women published in the Journal of American Medical Association in 2004 said increased coffee consumption is associated with decreasing risk of developing type 2 diabetes.On the other hand, the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study published in the American Journal of Epidimeology in September 2006, involving 12, 204 nondiabetic middle aged men and women showed a significant reduction in the risk of developing diabetes with coffee consumption.

Even the Harvard School of Medicine reported in its 2006 Diabetes Care that data collected from more than 80,000 female nurses showed that coffee consumption resulted in 50 percent reduction in the risk of developing diabetes.

The result merely echoed findings from an earlier research by the same institution conducted in 2004, also involving nurses. It was called the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study and the Brigham and Women’s Hospital-Based Nurses Health Study published in the January 6, 2004 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine.

The study, which involved 41,934 men and 84,276 women from 1980 to 1998 showed that men who drank more than six cups of caffeinated coffee per day reduced their risk of type 2 diabetes by more than 50 percent as compared to men who didn’t drink coffee.

The same study showed that women who drank six or more cups of coffee per day reduced the risk of type 2 diabetes by nearly 30 percent.
click image to see beautiful shots of coffee! 

Other studies pointing to the same conclusion were conducted by other medical researchers and published in the Archives of internal Medicine in 2006 and the Journal of American Medical Association between coffee and diabetes did not differ substantially according to sex, obesity, or region.Dr. Tan starts seeing patients as early as 7 a.m. To keep himself active, throughout the day, a cup of coffee keeps him company.

‘I also use my coffee to trick my tummy from growling for food, a trick I learned to maintain my weight,’ he says. Tan cites a March 2006 issue of the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition which showed that coffee intake can make one lose weight, albeit only minimal.

As doctor specializing in diabetes, Tan reminds that one has to take care of his diet and be physically active. Avoid stress, or have less of it, and get at least seven hours of sleep every night. Stress and sleep debt are the new major risk factors in the development of diabetes.


mikey

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Re: Philippine Coffee Gets Its Kick Back:
« Reply #3 on: September 28, 2008, 09:21:06 AM »
Patrick Joson : “Kape ni Juan is 100% Pinoy”
A Filipino pride advocate finds a way to bring gourmet coffee to the masses.

The growth of coffee shops in the Metro has revealed to numerous entrepreneurs    and aficionados alike what the coffee industry holds for them in the immediate future. And individuals like Patrick Joson, the man behind what blogs and urbanite critics now call “The Filipinos’ Choice”, Kape ni Juan, isn’t so far behind so much so that he even encourages it.

It also helps that the Philippines is one of the few countries in the Pacific that is fortunate to have all four major coffee varieties present in its soil. Our country is actually situated in the ‘coffee belt’, a part of the globe which has only two seasons-wet and dry, entailing a tropical climate, sufficient amount of rain and humidity that’s advantageous to coffee farmers. This became more renowned especially in the `90s, where the Philippines became the fourth largest coffee-producing country in the world.
“The invasion of foreign companies, especially in the coffee industry is what primarily inspired me to come up with Kape ni Juan. Ito ang pambato natin sa kanila,” said Joson, its owner.

Joson is known in the metropolitan scene as an advocate of Philippine products. Some of his other businesses include Monster Energy Bar and Dodong Purongtong. Monster Energy Bar is the first energy bar produced in the country, which has been used by Mount Everest teams and multi-sports athletes, while the latter is a fashion line which sports Filipino-pride prints and themes.

He is also a Yabang Pinoy founder, which he feels is his greatest achievement so far. Yabang Pinoy is a group that is fast-becoming legendary for its unyielding support in raising the Filipino people’s philosophy and pride. Together with the Yabang Pinoy team, he campaigns for support for Filipino artists and products, and for deeper love for our nation. He goes out of his way to speak to as many individuals and groups on the importance of national pride in every Filipino.

And as we lead a more cosmopolitan life, drinking coffee, especially gourmet coffee, is also becoming not just a trend but a lifestyle for the young Filipinos. But while other more popular coffee shops brand their products as Western or European, Joson , a fourth-generation coffee farmer from Batangas, goes against the grain with a dynamic coffee shop patterned from the dynamic Filipino street-selling business model.

Local taste
The Philippines’ coffee industry was at its peak until t8yo, when the country was hit by the coffee rust, a kind of infestation that brought the coffee economy into its cessation.

Since then, the local industry has not been able to regain its foothold in the world’s coffee economy. Goaded by the influx of imported coffee beans mostly from Latin America, coffee farmers resorted to planting other kind of crops.
“Kape ni Juan wants to promote the Filipino coffee culture, especially the regional based coffee varieties. We are progressing and the potential to do better at our Philippine coffee varieties is huge,” said Joson.

Kape ni Juan, its name taken from the symbolic Filipino identity, Juan de la Cruz, is the only coffee shop which offers the four variety of endemic Filipino coffee, Liberica, Robusta, Exelsa and Arabica. It is the first coffee chain in Manila distributed at different parts metro wide.

“Kape ni Juan is a very straightforward name, it is not presumptuous, very light and simple, and this is how Filipinos love their coffee. Filipino coffee drinkers have different preferences in their coffee since each region has their own unique coffee variety. Batanguenos opt for their strong local Barako or the Liberica variety while the Caviteiio’s would go for the smoother Arabica,” he added.

These are what have inspired Joson to create palates that do not only make Kape ni Juan unique, but promotes its original brainchild. Its main offerings are Kapeng Amadeo, Kapeng Lipa and Kapeng Benguet-exploring the three major coffee producing provinces in the Philippines.

Kapeng Amadeo, for instance, is derived from the name of Amadeo City, the coffee capital of the Philippines. It is a rich blend of two different coffee types, Robusta and Excelsa that creates a fruity, slightly bitter taste.

Kapeng Lipa is specifically authentic Liberica coffee, brash, strong and bitter with the dark clarity of black, locally known as Kapeng Barako. Liberica coffee is originally grown in Lipa, Batangas, but cultivation distributed throughout the other parts of the country including Cavite.

Meanwhile, Kapeng Benguet, is pure Arabica blend, exported from the mountains of Benguet. Arabica is the most expensive coffee bean because it has a smoother flavor compared to the three other kinds.

Joson explained that Filipinos, being relative coffee drinkers, don’t mix varieties because we grow and cultivate pure beans in the country. “Each region and each variety has a different taste,” he added.

Rather than from big coffee suppliers, Kape ni Juan exports their coffee from coffee farmers, usually coursing through the cooperatives. They bring the coffee beans to their own roasting house back in Batangas, and even the syrups they use on their Praps (their local version of the frapuccino), are localized and are more competitive in terms of prices. They also serve chocolate drinks made from the tablea, the local chocolate tablets made from cacao fruits.

Power of the cart
Joson continued, “The business models in the Philippines are very upbeat, progressive and creative.” His idea of selling gourmet coffee like they were halut (salted duck’s egg) or peanuts on streets struck him immediately when they were deciding on how to make Kape ni Juan inimitable. Aside from being economical, the carts provide mobile service. On top of this, it provides the vendor easy relocation once he feels the current location isn’t doing well.

He is very eager on making their coffee available anytime, anywhere. They also have started coffee catering, which is available for any occasions especially weddings, debuts or corporate parties. Together with their famous Pinoy coffee packages, they also serve desserts.

Their other specialties include Tsokolate Uy, a classic warm and thick loo% Filipino chocolate drink; Tsokolate Ye, a modern chocolate drink blended to perfection; Kapeng Ye, ice infused with liberica coffee and Moka Prap Sarap, a fusion of blended Philippine chocolate and liberica. Meanwhile, they also supply coffee to Filipino restaurants including Recipe by Metro Cafe in Alabang and Mogwai in Cubao Expo.

“We are planning to offer a drinkall-you-can promo called ‘Kapeng Barako para sa Barako.’ Just the plain Kapeng Barako, boiled in the traditional way, using a pot and mixed only with sugar,” added Joson.


mikey

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Re: Philippine Coffee Gets Its Kick Back:
« Reply #4 on: September 28, 2008, 09:22:53 AM »
Coffee : Philippine Coffee Origins
Beans for specialty coffee come from different places :

PURE EXELSA - is a lowland coffee. It has very distinct sweet and fruity aroma and taste exotic jackfruit. This bean variety is normally blended for its aroma and not for its taste. It is a lot woodier than liberica. Usually found in Mt. Malaray in Lipa, Mt. Banahaw at Sorsogon


LIBERICA - is considered lowland coffee. It has pungent aroma and pharmacopical, strong woody taste. It has a straight bitter bite leaving a natural acidic aftertaste. Among all the four coffee varietals, liberica is the biggest bean. Usually found in Quezon, Lipa and Remedios Trinidad in Bulacan

ROBUSTA - is also considered lowland coffee. It is called filler coffee. It is normally used to make instant coffee. Among all the coffee varieties, it has the highest caffeine content and has the most woody and bitter taste. Usually found in Compostela Valley, Bukidnon, Saranggani, South Cotabato, Negros Occidental and Negros Oriental.

PHILIPPINE ARABICA - is highland coffee from 1,000 - 1,600 meters above sea level. The Philippines has five species of arabica - tipica, ramona and bourbon predominantly found in Cordillera. Whereas, meisor and caatimor are mostly found in Mindanao. Usually abundant in Benguet, Mt. Province, sagada, Ifugao, Mt. Matutum, Sultan Kudarat, Mt. Apo and Agusan del Sur.


mikey

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Re: Philippine Coffee Gets Its Kick Back:
« Reply #5 on: September 28, 2008, 09:24:35 AM »
Promoting Arabica Coffee for the Cordillera Highlands
Sagada, Mt. Province — One of the promising industrial crops with a bright future in the Cordillera highlands is more than a century old. It’s Arabica coffee, an ancient coffee variety which has excellent aroma and liquor taste, according to Thomas Killip, presidenticrl assistant for the Cordillera.

Research done by his office showed that Arabica typica, the variety originally drown in the Cordillera for the past one hundred years, is not only the best variety but also the oldest mother plant from which all other Arabica strains have emanated. It was introduced by the Spaniards during the Spanish colonial era. In fact, some of the first Arabica typica trees still exist today.


The book Practical Guide for Quality Coffee Arabica Production in the Cordillera published by the Cordillera Integrated Agricultural Research Center of the Department of Agriculture affirms Killip’s claim. The book noted that of the several varieties and cultivars of coffee, Arabica typica and bourbon-now widely grown in Benguet and Mt. Province-have the best aroma and taste.

It also reported that the following mutants emerged from these two varieties: Caturra, a compact form of bourbon; Maragopipe, a mutant Arabica typica with large beans; San Ramon, a dwarf Arabica typica; and Purpuracens, an Arabica with purple leaves.

Other cultivars are Blue Mountain, grown in Jamaica and Kenya; Mundo Novo, a cross between A. typica and bourbon originally grown in Brazil; Kent, originally grown in India; Catuia, a hybrid of Mundo Novo and Caturra; Catua-amarelo; Catuia-vermelho; Hibrido de Timor, a cross between Arabica and Robusta; and Catimor, a cross between Caturra and Hibrido de Timor.

Grown organically, Arabica typica is currently grown by highland farmers as a backyard crop. But for Killip, if he
had his way, he would have every unutilized space in the Cordillera highlands planted to Arabica coffee because this variety commands the highest price in the world market today.

Good for him because Benguet, Mt. Provinced and the highland areas of Kalinga, Abra, and Apayao are the most extensive areas in the country where Arabica thrives. These provinces are
known to possess the right natural conditions in terms of altitude, climate, and soil –for growing Arabica. This is why the big players in coffee production and processing have already started coming the region, says Killip.

He added that since his office was involve in the launching of the campaign for the development of the Arabica coffee industry in the region, the price of the Arabica green beans “have spiralled dramatically.” For example, the price of a kilo of green beans two years ago was P70 but now it’s P180-P200. Ground coffee on the other hand, was sold two years ago at R200 per kilo but now, “somebody is willing to [pay] P600 per kilo for a steady supply of ground Arabica coffee.”

Aside from Arabica, the climate in the Cordillera is also favorable for the production of commercial varieties Excelsa, Liberica, and Robusta. The four varieties can be grown in various elevation ranges of Abra. In Benguet and Mt. Province, Arabica, Excelsa, and Robusta grow best, while in Ifugao, Kalinga, and Apayao, Arabica and Robusta thrive best.

Besides the favorable agronomic characteristics of Arabica, Killip was convinced of the potential of this crop after he visited Cali, a region in Columbia where Arabica is also being grown. He said that Cali is very much like the Cordillera in terms of terrain, temperature, and elevation.

“The inhabitants of Cali grow the same Arabica coffee that we grow here. The type of land tenure in the area are similar to ours,” Killip shares.

The strength of the coffee growers in Cali, continues Killip, is that “the entire region is [managed by a cooperative]. The coffee growers’ cooperative in the region runs like a government within a government. They have huge funds
enough to take care of the education and medical needs of farmer-members. Aside from farming, the coffee farmers’ cooperative [also manages] the regions hotels, restaurants, trucking, and other industries.”

Killip’s office, in cooperation with the Department of Agriculture, National Irrigation Administration, Benguet State University, Department of Environment and Natural Resources, and other government agencies, is spearheading the formation of municipal coffee councils and federate these into provincial and even regional coffee council.

The main task of the councils is to develop and recommend appropriate policies and production and marketing strategies for the Arabica coffee industry in the Cordillera. To date, interim coffee councils were already formed in Benguet, Mt. Province, and Ifugao.

The Arabica coffee industry in other countries is well developed compared to Cordillera’s, but Killip is undaunted with this reality for he sees hope. “There is already a wealth of research, knowledge, and experience on Arabica coffee that we could tap to build the foundation of our own Arabica coffee industry in the region,” he concludes.


mikey

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Re: Philippine Coffee Gets Its Kick Back:
« Reply #6 on: September 28, 2008, 09:26:26 AM »
Firm Sets High Standards in Buying Coffee Beans
Titus Fernandez of Nestle Philippines Cagayan de Oro (CDO) factory stabs three sacks of green coffee bean (GCB) with a “buriki.” In one swift move, he gets random samples of the morning’s delivery for strict standard evaluation.

“How strict? The GCB will be graded according to the percentage of total triage by weight of a composite sample, its moisture content, and finally, its cup taste which are all based on international standards,” reveals Fernandez.


The first screening is designed to filter out deliveries with physical defects. These include GCB with foreign body, admixture, black beans, cherry stinker beans, husk fragments, parchment fragments, broken beans, moldy beans, immature beans, and insect-damaged beans.

“These defects affect the overall quality of coffee,” explains Fernandez. “In fact, few of these defects can cause problems in our production as they can damage our equipment.”

Nestle Philippines GCB grading system puts prime weight on the presence of foreign body, which bears 7.0 weight coefficient, in evaluating the GCB because this indicates poor harvesting and processing by the coffee farmer or trader. The most common foreign bodies found are corn, rice, soya and stones.

Next is the presence of admixture, which is sound bean of another botanical variety other than Robusta, at 3.0 weight coefficient.

Nescafe Classic, our main product in CDO factory, is made of 100 percent Robusta coffee,” explains Fernandez. “Any ingredient other than Robusta can cause undesirable taste and aroma.”

The third at 2.0 weight coefficient are black beans, coffee beans of which half or more than one-half of the external appearance is black. Fernandez says black beans produce the most awful taste: dirty, astringent and woody.

Nescafe only buys GCBs with Grade 1 to Grade 3 or coffee beans having eight percent to 16 percent triage.

The GCB are then evaluated for their moisture content. Those with 12 percent moisture content are automatically rejected.

Harvested coffee berries are poured into a flotation tank to separate floaters from the sinkers. Sinkers are good quality ripe berries that are free from insect damage. To ensure high quality GCBs, coffee berries that have been dried and dehulled sinkers must be dried within ‘ 24 to 48 hours after harvest.

“Partially dried coffee can lead to fermented or fruity flavors in the coffee,” says Fernandez. “It’s also susceptible to mold which can cause moldy or musty flavors.

The final screening after moisture test, of course, is cupping or cup tasting. Coffee with moldy, fermented, and foreign taste is automatically rejected.

“We have a team of highly-trained cup tasters who can detect slight nuances of coffee taste and aroma,” says Fernandez, who is himself an experienced cup taster.

In recent years, Fernandez says, they have been getting good quality coffee from Grade 1 to Grade 2 from coffee farmers.

“I think Nestle has successfully gotten its message across coffee sellers,” says Fernandez. “We are serious about making coffee.”

The Nestle CDO factory is where the ; country’s best-selling instant coffee is produced from GCBs brought from ‘ Nestle’s 11 satellite buying stations ‘ across the country.


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Re: Philippine Coffee Gets Its Kick Back:
« Reply #7 on: December 05, 2008, 05:52:19 AM »
A Heavenly Drink Called Barako
During the 1950s, a Japanese straggler who refused to believe that the war was over, was finally convinced to come out from his forested hideout somewhere between Batangas and the highlands of Cavite. In the cave, which was hidden by thick brush and wild coffee trees where he lived for more than a decade, members of the search party who escorted him back to civilization discovered a sack of dried coffee beans stacked in a lofty niche of the cavern.

When the former soldier returned to Japan, he wrote a book on his war experience in the Philippines, which became a bestseller. He devoted a chapter on the “dream” coffee he was drinking every morning. He wrote that when he drank it, he felt he was in heaven! Its heady aroma and unique bitter taste gave him a kick and catapulted him to dreamland when he drank it!

The “dream” coffee he was referring to is barako (Liberica), which thrives well above 300-meter elevations and is noted for its distinct strong taste. It is one of the four varieties of coffee that grow in the Philippines. The other three being Arabica that grows 1,200-1,800 meters above sea level like in Benguet and Bukidnon, Robusta that is grown in lower elevations like the Liberica between 300-800 meters above sea level, and Excelsa, which has a distinct jackfruit flavor that grows in the same areas as the Robusta.

Coffee was first consumed in the 9th Century, when it was discovered in the highlands of Ethiopia in Africa. From there, it spread to Egypt and Yemen, and by the 15th Century had reached Persia (Iran), and Turkey. From the Muslim world, coffee spread to Italy, then to the rest of Europe, the Americas, and Asia. Today, it is one of the most popular beverages worldwide.

“According to oral history, a Franciscan friar may have been responsible for bringing coffee to the Philippines in the 1740s,” says in the folklore and history chapter of the book Barako, the Big Bean, authored by Chit Juan, CEO of Figaro Coffee Company and executive director of the Figaro Foundation Corporation (FFC), and Alejandro Mojica, PhD, the country’s leading authority on coffee. The FFC espouses the cause of
helping save the Philippine Liberica or Barako industry and help coffee farmers to make coffee a major dollar earner for the country. “On his journey to the Philippines, he brought with him three gantas of coffee beans on a Manila galleon in a voyage from Mexico and planted them somewhere in Laguna.

“When the friar died, his servant boy dug up the coffee plants and replanted them in his father’s land in Lipa, Batangas,” continues the book. “These plants grew well and were presumably the source of planting materials for the majority of the land in Lipa.”

Considered one of the high-value crops in the local and foreign markets, coffee is among the top ten agricultural products in terms of value. In 1980, the Philippines became the fourth largest coffee exporter in the world. The country produced 70,000 metric tons of coffee at that time, with 15 to 30 percent of this volume going to the export market.

“Prior to the mid-1997 Asian economic meltdown, Cavite had 15,000 farmers,” explains Dr. Alejandro C. Mojica, Sr., a member of the Philippine Coffee Board (PCB) and executive director of the Cavite Coffee Development Board (CCDB). “Now, the province has only 8,000 coffee farmers. But, the finai blow came in 2001 when Vietnam overproduced coffee that brought the world prices down.

“So, from 13,000 hectares in 2001. coffee farms shrunk to a mere 6,000 hectares when coffee farmers shifted to planting pineapples and sold their farmlands to golf course developers.” says Mojica, who is also the director for research of CvSU and at the same time the national program leader for coffee R&D for the Department of Agriculture-Bureau of Agricultural Research. “Now, multinational companies making instant coffee here are importing coffee from Vietnam because we can’t cope with their demand.”

“From 70,000 metric tons per year production in 1980, our annual production is only 29,000 metric tons while our consumption is estimated at 60,000 metric tons,” says Mojica inside the new sterile coffee tissue culture laboratory at the Cavite State University (CvSU) in the highland towns of Indang. “That’s why they don’t have a choice but to import.”

“What’s good about the Philippines is we are both producer and drinker of coffee, a P3 billion industry, while Vietnam only produces it because they are tea drinkers,” enthuses Mojica. “That’s why coffee here has a sure market,” he continues. “The good thing about coffee compared with other crops is that you can stock it up to two years, provided it is properly dried, and wait for its right price in the market. Now, it is P430 per ten-kilo can compared with P120 in 2001.”

Liberica or barako (a Tagalog synonym for a tough guy), is a deep-rooted plant that thrives in deep surface soil rich in sulphur and potassium. Its harvest season is between November and February. Bigger than other coffee varieties and has bigger berries, a tree could generate an average of two kilos of milled green beans or eight to ten kilos of fresh berries.

In lieu of the more expensive conventional fertilizer, which eats up 25 per cent of the total production cost of’ a coffee farm, Mojica, together with Liberato DV. Perez, program leader of CvSU’s National Coffee Research, Development and Extension Center, which is situated right in the middle of the biggest coffee producing province in the country, introduced vermicompost organic fertilizer which the coffee farmer can produce himself:

“Vermicompost uses worms and farm waste like grass, leaves and small tree branches that were shredded and mixed together with manure,” explains the coffee expert, whose coffee nursery could produce two tons of vermicompost a month. “Worms are then introduced to the compost bed which eat it. Their excreta, called vermicasting, have high nutritional content and is a good substitute for the more expensive fertilizer.”

A few months ago, a representative of Taiho - a big Japanese heavy equipment company - which is planning to diversify into the food and coffee shop business, and two coffee specialists. went to CvSU to meet Mojica to look for that proverbial “dream” coffee that his bosses read in the bestseller book by the war lagger.

“Here, they had a cup taste of barako and exulted that it is indeed the “coffee they have been searching for,” exclaims Mojica. “Initially, they ordered two metric tons of coffee monthly, which we failed to deliver due to lack of supply,” he added.

“Robusta is the dominant coffee variety now in the Philippines, which is turned into instant coffee by big multinational instant coffee makers,” continues Mojica. “Our total annual coffee harvest of 7,000 metric tons here in Cavite consists of 95 percent Robusta, two to three percent are Excelsa, while only one per cent of the 6,000 MT, are Liberica!”

Aside from Cavite, other barako-producing provinces are Bulacan (Dona Remedios Trinidad), Bataan, Quezon, the Bicol Region, and Negros Island.

“Barako has the brightest future (among the other coffee varieties) because the Philippines could be known worldwide by having a Philippine coffee that has an excellent aroma, which has a distinct smell on its own,” says Mojica, who is just waiting for the Department of Agriculture’s High Value Commercial Crops (HVCC) to release the second tranche of P2 million (out of a P5 million grant) for him and Perez to transfer the barako plantlets in the acclimatization nursery where misters are to be installed to maintain a low humidity.

Aside from Japan and the Middle East, Canada is also interested to import barako from the Philippines.

In 2004, Perez, who decided to retire in nearby Mendez, his wife’s hometown, met Mojica and learned about the latter’s plan to put up a Barako tissue culture.

“We started the tissue culture using the international formula protocol, which we modified and used in different parts of an award-winning, high-yielding barako tree,” explains Perez, a UPLB agriculture graduate who immigrated to the US in 1972. “After perfecting it, we decided to mass propagate this superior variety which could yield up to 54 kilos of fresh beans per harvest.”

Using embryogenic method, the duo grew minute coffee leaves in vials in a temperature-controlled darkroom from seed embryos. From this culture, lumps of callus cells grow within six months. These callus lumps are then put in a shaker to separate them from each other. One callus can produce 200 planting materials. Now, they could produce one million planting materials in a period of three years in CvSU’s 10-hectare coffee farm nursery.

After five to seven years from planting these super barako plantlets, the Philippines will have one million high-yielding trees that will propel our very own “dream” coffee into the discriminating taste buds of millions of coffee lovers worldwide.


 

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